Altitude is the vertical distance above a specific reference point. While you may be familiar with the term, you may not know that there are five types of altitude. There are many factors that determine altitude including the vertical distance above mean sea level and above the ground surface, as well as pressure and density. In this blog, we will be providing an overview of five different types of altitude, thus giving you a better understanding of their distinguishing features and importance.

Beginning with indicated altitude, this type can be read directly off the altimeter within an aircraft. The altimeter is either mounted on an aircraft’s instrumental panel or can be worn on a person’s wrist. If situated on the instrumental panel, it is typically enclosed in a case that is affixed to the exterior of the aircraft by an air pressure inlet at the back-end of the housing. Alternatively, you can also derive altitude data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides altitude as a part of the area’s location by receiving signals from different satellites.

Similarly, pressure altitude information is derived from an altimeter that has been set to 29.92” (inHg). This setting can be described as standard pressure altitude wherein the aircraft is above the standard datum plane. The latter is the theoretical location in which at 15 degrees Celsius, the altimeter setting will equal 29.92 inches of mercury. Pressure altitude serves a particularly important role as it is the basis for determining aircraft performance as well as for aircraft flying above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL). As such, all aircraft flying at similar flight levels will have the same altimeter setting.

Density altitude is pressure altitude that has been adjusted for non-standard temperatures. It is especially important for calculating aircraft performance data. Density altitude is the altitude the aircraft will be performing at regardless of its actual altitude. With increased temperatures, your airplane does not perform as well. For example, your takeoff distance may be longer, you may experience vapor lock, and you may not climb as fast. The hot temperatures will cause your density to increase, thus your aircraft will feel like it is flying at a higher altitude.

Next, true altitude is defined as the vertical distance of your aircraft above sea level. The units used to express this altitude is Mean Sea Level (MSL). Aeronautical charts often use MSL for airspace altitudes, terrain figures, airways, and more. It is important not to confuse true altitude with the height of the aircraft above ground level as these are different.

Lastly, absolute altitude is the aircraft’s height above the ground below. As absolute altitude is constantly changing, hills, valleys, and mountainous terrain can transform the absolute altitude accordingly. Typically expressed in feet above ground level (AGL), a radar altimeter, or radio altimeter, measures altitude above the terrain that is presently beneath an aircraft by determining the time it takes a beam of radio waves to reflect from the ground and bounce back to the aircraft. It is important to note that radar altimeters can provide readings up to 2,500 feet AGL.

If you find yourself in need of altimeter components, aircraft cylinders, or other various parts, rely on ASAP NSN Hub for all your operational needs. With an ever-expanding inventory of over 2 billion new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find parts at your fingertips, you are bound to find the products you need with ease. More than that, our optimized digital interface consists of a helpful search engine and filters as well as an RFQ service that simplifies the procurement process. By filling out and submitting an RFQ form, you will receive a competitive quote for your comparisons in just 15 minutes or less. Thank you for choosing ASAP NSN Hub as your go-to sourcing solution.

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When observing commercial aircraft as they conduct operations, one may notice that there are a variety of small surfaces that are commonly implemented on the ends of wings. These surfaces at the end of wingtips are known as winglets or Sharklets depending on the manufacturer of the aircraft, and they serve to reduce drag for the means of achieving more optimal flight. To better understand the role that winglets and Sharklets serve, as well as their difference, we will provide a brief overview of each.

In order for an aircraft to achieve and maintain flight, they rely on their wings and their effect on aerodynamics. As an aircraft moves forward in the air, the shape of their wings will cause a pressure difference to form above and below the structure. As the air pressure below the wing is greater than that above it, lift will be produced, resulting in the aircraft being pushed upwards in the air. While this method of operation is crucial for standard flight, the design of wing structures makes it so that spiraling vortices are created as the two varying pressure zones come into contact with each other.

Vortices are detrimental for a variety of reasons, primarily being a major source of drag which causes aircraft to slow down. With reduced speed, an increased amount of fuel must be burned to maintain standard speeds, making flight operations less cost-effective and less environmentally friendly. When conducting research into how the negative effects of vortices may be combated, engineers found that modifying wingtips could allow for the size of vortices to be mitigated.

During the 1973 Middle-Eastern oil crisis, NASA partnered with manufacturing companies such as Boeing to experiment with aircraft design to find a way in which aircraft fuel could be used more efficiently, and studying birds of prey paved the way for testing wingtips that curved backwards. Upon further testing, such structural designs proved to increase lift while reducing drag, and the 1988 Boeing 747-400 was the first to feature winglets. Soon after, Gulfstream followed with their blended winglet, and the technology quickly spread as an industry standard.

In 2002, the European Union initiated the Aircraft Wing with Advanced Technology Operation (AWIATOR) program which sought further ways in which drag and aircraft fuel consumption could be reduced. After some years of experimentation, Airbus released their own variation of winglets in 2011, those of which they called Sharklets. When comparing the two different structures to one another, little difference may be found outside of cosmetic appearance. As such, both devices provide the exact same benefit of reducing the detrimental effects of wing pressure differences and minimizing the amount of vortices that result from standard flight operations.

As winglets and Sharklets both can reduce the amount of fuel that is consumed for a standard flight, having such designs for your aircraft is crucial for the sake of saving money and fuel. ASAP NSN Hub is a website owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we are a premier distributor of new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find items that cater towards a variety of applications and industries. Take your time in exploring our vast offerings and catalogs, and our team of industry experts is always readily on standby 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as necessary.

As an AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B certified and accredited enterprise, we ensure that all parts are of the utmost quality prior to shipment. We are also the only independent distributor with a NO CHINA SOURCING pledge, meaning that every item ships with its qualifying certifications and manufacturing trace documentation. Get started on the purchasing process today with a competitive quote for your comparisons when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website. 

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While not an equipment piece that serves for the ability of flight directly, landing gear is one of the most crucial aspects of an aircraft that enables safe operations. Coming in a variety of forms and designs, the common goal of landing gear is to provide a means for an aircraft to takeoff and land on various surfaces, as well as traverse on the ground. Taildragger and tricycle landing gear are two of the most common types of configurations, each of which feature different assemblies that may be beneficial to certain aircraft models and needs. To help you understand the differences between each landing gear type, we will provide a brief overview of the taildragger and tricycle landing gear of aircraft.

Taildragger landing gear, also known as conventional landing gear, is a configuration in which two primary wheels are situated near the front of the fuselage while a single wheel is placed toward the back. The rear wheel is a smaller wheel, meaning that the aircraft’s rear will lean backward as the weight of the vehicle rests on the secondary wheel. The name “taildragger” came from the way in which such aircraft tend to takeoff and land, having an appearance of dragging their tail across the runway. Taildragger landing gear has long served aircraft since the early day of aviation, originally coming in the form of steerable tailskids.

Such landing gear has a number of advantages that can be very beneficial, such as how the center of gravity places a small load on the back wheel, allowing it to be built smaller for less parasitic drag. Distribution of weight and landing configurations also allow for slower airframe damage, and they may be easier to operate with skis or traverse in and out of hangars. Despite these advantages, such landing gear often cause more “nose-over” accidents which can be hazardous for the pilot. Additionally, the orientation of the aircraft while on the ground can decrease forward visibility, and present harder taxi maneuvers during high wind conditions.

The tricycle landing gear configuration is a type of undercarriage in which the wheels are situated in a tricycle arrangement. Somewhat opposite to the taildragger undercarriage type, tricycle gear features a single nose wheel in the front, while two or more main wheels are located aft of the center of gravity. Due to their orientation, tricycle landing gear often offers the pilot a more optimal forward view and are less at risk of facing a “nose over” accident. Tricycle landing gear is also known for providing the easiest takeoff, landing, and taxiing procedures, making it very common for many aircraft models.

Their ease of landing comes from the assembly of their wheels, allowing them to meet a required attitude for landing on the main gear as is required in the flare. They are also less affected by crosswinds, and reduce the possibility of a ground loop. Despite these various advantages, tricycle landing gear is known for being susceptible to wheel-barrowing, that of which is when lift is powerful enough to reduce the weight on the wheels while being too little to fully take the aircraft off of the ground. This can result in a loss of directional stability, possibly being an operational hazard.

With the varying differences between the two landing gear configurations, the decision may come down to the personal choice of a pilot and what they are most familiar with. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, offering competitive pricing and rapid lead-times on over 2 billion high-quality parts that cater to a diverse set of industries and applications. Take the time to fully explore our expansive catalogs as you see fit, and our experts are ready to assist you through the purchasing process to fulfill all your operational requirements with ease.

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Aviation headsets are a common equipment piece for aircraft, permitting pilots and crew members to conduct radio and intra-cabin communication. Additionally, headsets are also crucial for hearing protection and maintaining clear communication as they block ambient noises and reduce sound levels for the comfort and ease of the user. As an essential element of many flight operations, it is important to properly maintain and clean aviation headsets so that they can continue to function properly for a long period of time.

Aviation headsets can be an expensive investment, often ranging upwards of $1,000 or more depending on the features, brand, and capabilities they offer. As a well cared for headset can provide its user with a service life upwards of ten or so years, such equipment is worth protecting. While most headsets are easy to use and may only need to be plugged into an interface for their basic functionality, there are common protection practices and maintenance procedures that should be followed by pilots to maintain the health of all equipment.

Whenever one is finishing a flight and removes their headset, one of the most simplistic ways in which they can be properly protected is to be stored correctly. Headsets should never be left out in the sun unattended as heat and light can easily damage certain materials and sensitive electronics. Additionally, the sunlight may heat up certain surfaces enough to burn one’s skin if not careful. As such, the headset should be stored out of the path of sunlight, even if one is simply stopping for a short amount of time. Furthermore, headsets should be stored in such a way that they are guarded against moisture and extreme temperatures as well.

For the long term storage of headsets, pilots should utilize either a case or a protective flight bag so that equipment can be transported safely. It is paramount that headsets are not haphazardly thrown into storage with other items as the microphone, earphones, or other equipment pieces may become damaged or broken. To prevent such occurrences, the best storage options are those that allow the pilot to secure the headset with padding and straps.

As headsets are equipment pieces that face constant use, various materials can break down or wear out over time. Ear seals, fabric inserts, the head pad, and microphone are all pieces that commonly face the most wear, thus they may be replaced regularly for proper maintenance. Beyond being beneficial for the service life of the headset itself, replacing wearable parts can also make such equipment more comfortable to wear and may even improve performance in some regards. Depending on how frequently one flies, the interval of replacements can range from every six months to every year and a half, though flaking materials are always a sign that it may be time for replacement. Luckily, replacing most parts of a headset is very quick, often only taking a handful of minutes for each part.

The cables and connectors of aviation headsets are paramount for their functionality, requiring ample protection. Cables have the chance of becoming damaged and frayed over time if treated incorrectly, thus pilots always need to handle such components with care. It is important that cables are never pulled out of interfaces with force, and cabling should be neatly organized and stored to avoid twisting, wrapping, and strain. If cables are long and a more proper solution is needed, certain clips, boxes, and mounting tools may be employed within the cockpit to remove any strain on cabling.

Through the proper maintenance and care of aviation headsets, such equipment can provide many years of reliable operations for the benefit of flight communication. If you are in need of various headset components for replacement, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform for aircraft components, and we utilize our market expertise and purchasing power to save our customers time and money when procuring all they need for their operations. Get started with a personalized quote on items you are interested in today when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website.

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Electrical circuits and devices are complex systems, and their intricate and numerous components can make troubleshooting somewhat difficult. While one could test the overall functionality of a component through more manual means, tools such as ammeters are much more beneficial for troubleshooting a circuit with their ability to gather various readings. Ammeters are capable of measuring the amount of current present within a circuit, and they garner current readings in the form of amperes. As there are various types of ammeters available as well as similar devices such as galvanometers, it is important to understand the role of such instruments and how they differ from others.

Unlike measurements of voltage and resistance, measuring current requires the meter to become a part of the circuit itself. Digital and analog ammeter instruments are the most common type, and both utilize a separate or included jack in order to attach the test lead plug to the circuit. While ammeters are primarily designed for measuring current, many can still provide readings for voltage and resistance as well. As many models may differ from one another, it is best to refer to manufacturer specifications or the owner’s manual for how measurements may be conducted.

When an ammeter is connected to the circuit through its leads, current will pass through the device and a measurement is made. If there are no issues with the circuit, no voltage should be dropped during the process. The readings of digital and analog ammeters are slightly different, and many say that analog ammeters are more difficult to read. Despite this, the continuous movement of the needle across the indicator dial allows for a more thorough and precise measurement in regard to current changes. It is important to enact caution when conducting measurements with any ammeter, as a surge in current can damage the instrument and its components. As such, a meter may have a fuse or specific device settings to protect itself.

Ammeters are often compared to other measurement devices such as galvanometers, but the two should not be confused with one another. While the ammeter is used for measuring current, voltage, and resistance, the galvanometer is a mechanical device that indicates the magnitude and direction of current. Galvanometers are also not used for measuring alternating current, and they require a magnetic field in order to achieve their readings. As such, both devices are fairly similar in their ability to measure electronic circuit properties, though their different roles and characteristics set the two devices apart.

In the case that an ammeter needs to measure a system that exhibits an unsafe current level, the ammeter may be placed in parallel with a shunt resistor. A shunt resistor often comes in the form of a high precision manganin resistor that has a low resistance value. With this setup, the current is reduced by the shunt resistor before entering the ammeter, and a reading is obtained. As the voltage resistance is already known before conducting a measurement, the read value can be scaled back to the original amperage while ensuring the safety of the measurement device.

When you are in need of measurement devices for troubleshooting electrical circuits, ASAP NSN Hub is your sourcing solution with top quality instruments and parts. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform, offering customers access to countless aviation parts, board level components, NSN parts, and more. We guarantee the quality of our inventory, only selling warrantied and traceable products that have been sourced from leading manufacturers. Additionally, we conduct thorough quality assurance testing and inspection prior to shipment. When you are ready to begin the purchasing process, fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less with a competitive quote. 

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During a normal travel year, airliners may constantly be operating as they land and takeoff around the world to transport passengers. Due to the sheer number of operations taking place each day, aircraft require quick turnovers upon landing so that they can continue on to their next destination with rapid succession. Despite the process of landing to take off being very rapid, there are numerous crucial procedures that are carried out to ensure an aircraft is properly situated for another flight. In this blog, we will discuss the steps taken upon landing an aircraft to the moment that it lifts off once again, allowing you to best understand how the turnover process is conducted.

Upon touching down on a runway, the first step that is carried out is to have the pilots communicate with ground controllers to safely taxi across the runway. Runways can be very busy areas with numerous hazards, thus it is crucial that proper direction is given for efficient management. With the assistance of a ramp team leader, pilots will be directed to their assigned gate and can then line themselves up correctly. Depending on the airport and its configuration, a pilot may be guided with the use of a lead-in lighting system or may follow instructions provided by the ramp lead. Once the nose wheel has been positioned correctly in the space, the plane can park itself.

As the jet engine or APU may use a great amount of power that is more beneficial for flight, a ground power system or generator will typically be connected to the aircraft to provide electricity while personnel prepare for passenger disembarking. Once the engines have been shut down and power has been established through external means, air conditioning is also provided externally to ensure passenger comfort. Depending on the size of the aircraft, one or two connections may be needed to sufficiently cool or heat the cabin.

In order to allow passengers to safely leave the aircraft, the gate may be attached to the cabin door or a truck or car with mounted stairs will position itself next to the fuselage. While most airliners will need either a gate or mounted stairs to leave the cabin, some smaller regional jets may be close enough to the ground and have built-in staircases for entering and exiting. While passengers are leaving, the ramp team will have already begun removing luggage and cargo into a baggage cart so that it can be transported to the baggage room and then the carousel. As jumbo jets can often carry large amounts of baggage that needs to quickly be removed, cargo pods serve as a solution that only requires one worker for operations while bags are placed.

In order to prepare for the next flight, catering trucks and a crew will restock the galley carts with more food and drinks, and they will often have lifts or other equipment to easily get materials inside the aircraft. Meanwhile, the cabin seats and toilets are cleaned, restocked with supplies, and checked so that everything is prepped and ready to go for the next set of passengers. As the last major procedure for preparing the aircraft, the fuel needed for the next operation is calculated and then the tanks are replenished as needed with the use of a tanker truck.

Once all preparations have been completed, the next round of passengers can board the aircraft and find their seats. Once pre-flight preparations are finalized, the cabin door is sealed and tugs or tractors will begin moving the aircraft away from the gate. From that point, the aircraft will work with air traffic control to begin the takeoff procedure and liftoff. Once the aircraft is safely in the air, crew members and pilots can return to their normal operations until the next destination is reached and the cycle begins again.

At ASAP NSN Hub, we serve as a premier supplier of aviation parts and components that have been sourced from top global manufacturers that we trust. Utilizing our purchasing power and market expertise, we can leverage competitive prices and rapid lead-times to save you money and time. If you find particular items that you are interested in, you may request a quote at any time through our RFQ services and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you to continue the process within 15 minutes of receiving your completed form. Get started today and see why customers choose to rely on ASAP NSN Hub for their operational needs. 

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An underwater locator beacon (ULB), also known as an underwater locating device or underwater acoustic beacon, is a device affixed to aviation flight recorders such as the cockpit voice recorder, flight data recorder, and aircraft fuselage. The device activates by being immersed in water, at which point it is designed to emit an ultrasonic pulse of 37.5 kHz every second for a minimum of 30 days. ULBs attached to the airframe are called low frequency ULBs and transmit the pulse at 8.8 kHz. These devices are not only designed to survive accidents, but to remain fully functioning after impact. Research from 2011 determined that ULBs had a 90% survival rate over nearly thirty above-sea air accidents.

As of January 1, 2020, new European aviation safety regulations on air operations dictate that the transmission time of the ULBs attached to the flight recorders must be extended from 30 to 90 days. The same ruling dictates that large aircraft flying routes more than 180 nautical miles from a shore must be equipped with an additional low frequency ULB on the airframe. Low-frequency ULBs must comply with ETSO-C200 regulations or equivalent, and cannot be installed in the wings or empennage.

Low frequency ULBs have a very long detection range allowing them to provide effective assistance in reducing the time and cost of locating wreckage. They transmit an 8.8 kHz acoustic signal (ping) for at least 90 days and the low frequency provides an increased detection of 7-12 nautical miles, four times greater than the standard ULBs installed on flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders. The maximum operational depth of a low frequency ULB is 20,000 feet and they can be activated by immersion in both salt and freshwater. The battery is a lithium single cell type with a service life of at least six years. The ULB assembly itself comprises the ULB DK180 Beacon, a mounting kit, and an adapter plate.

An aircraft maintenance program is needed to guarantee that procedures for testing the ULB, which is conducted concurrently with battery replacement, provide functional testing of the ULB before replacing the old battery to ensure that the device is still functioning properly. The maintenance program should consist of standard periodic maintenance, such as regular checking of the device operation as it pertains to manufacturer requirements, life limits on the battery of the ULB, and the cleaning of the switch contacts. When installing the ULB on the flight recorder, it is critical to make sure that the switch contacts are arranged such that they are not likely to contribute to the build-up of debris that could cause the contacts to inadvertently short. To do this, the contacts should be vertical or downward-facing.

The ULB is a crucial device in emergency situations. As such, it is best practice to ensure you are getting yours from a trusted source. For underwater locator beacons and much more, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, electronics, industrial, and IT hardware markets. Our account managers are always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790. Let us show you why we consider ourselves the future of purchasing.

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Whether you are driving an automobile or piloting a passenger aircraft, being aware of your current speed while traveling is paramount to safety, navigation & route planning, and much more. For the measurement of aircraft speed, such vehicles rely on a flight instrument known as an airspeed indicator. As a part of the pitot-static system, the airspeed indicator is a required installation mandated by the FAA to ensure proper speeds while taking off, descending, landing, and cruising.

While the speedometer of an automobile is often sufficient enough to discern current speeds for drivers, an aircraft has to take into account wind, the density of the surrounding atmosphere, possible instrument errors, and other factors that can make the measurement of aircraft speed more complicated. With four types of airspeed obtainable from instruments and calculations, pilots can find the indicated airspeed, true airspeed, calibrated airspeed, and groundspeed of their aircraft during operations.

With the base measurements provided by the airspeed indicator, pilots can find the indicated airspeed of the aircraft. While indicated airspeed is a measurement garnered from the pitot-static system, it is a reading that has not been adjusted for any standard errors. As such, pressure and temperature variables are used to correct the indicated airspeed to find true airspeed. With both measurements, pilots can oversee the general performance of their aircraft throughout a flight operation.

Beyond indicated airspeed and true airspeed, pilots can also calculate calibrated airspeed by utilizing standard position and instrumentation errors in order to correct the indicated airspeed value. For groundspeed, true airspeed is adjusted for wind to achieve a value. Through instrument measurements, adjustments for errors, and various calculations, pilots can find each of the four types of airspeed to safely travel. Before pilots can receive indicated airspeed to find the other three types, however, they must first measure and compare air pressure through instrumentation. While the assembly of instrumentation and pitot-static lines may vary from aircraft to aircraft, all airspeed indicators will rely on static ports, static lines, pitot tubes, pitot lines, cases, pressure diaphragms, and instrument faces.

With the static port, areas that exhibit fairly undisturbed airflow can be used to gather air at ambient pressures. Through static lines, static pressure can be transferred from ports to the instrument, and a line is required for each port that is present on the fuselage. With the pitot tubes, on the other hand, relative wind is captured and collected for ram air pressure measurements. Generally, pitot tubes are specifically placed and aligned with the surrounding airflow, ensuring that the pressure is relative to the moving speed of the aircraft. Once air enters the inlets, it will then move through pitot lines to the airspeed indicator instrument. Unlike static pressure, the pressure captured by pitot tubes is transported into the housed pressure diaphragm to create a reading that may be displayed on the instrument face.

For the operation of an airspeed indicator, the air pressure differential is measured. To carry out such measurements, air is provided to the airspeed indicator from both the pitot and static tube. As ram air from the pitot tube enters the diaphragm, the difference between air pressures will cause the diaphragm to either expand or retract. As the diaphragm adjusts, the needle on the face of the instrument will move in unison to denote the indicated airspeed. Unlike other instruments such as the altimeter and vertical speed indicator that only rely on static ports, airspeed indicators require a functional and unblocked pitot-static system to operate.

With a functional and well-maintained airspeed indicator and pitot-static system, pilots can safely traverse the skies while following safe speeds for their various operations. When you are in search of aircraft instrumentation and other aerospace components, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub help you secure everything you need with ease. Explore our expansive offerings and begin the purchasing process today when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website.

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In the days of aviation before the release of the Global Positioning System (GPS), pilots had to rely on a number of systems and methods in order to navigate and reach their destination efficiently. While visual flight rule (VFR) pilots can utilize physical landmarks to discern and navigate their surroundings, such methods would prove fruitless when vision is obstructed during certain weather patterns or times of the day. As such, pilots had to rely on VOR ground stations to traverse from one point to the other with instrumentation.

Before the GPS revolutionized aerial navigation, pilots steadily relied on a number of older area navigation (RNAV) technologies. RNAV is a method of carrying out instrument flight rule (IFR) navigation, and it consists of utilizing navigation beacons to set a course. At the time, many avionics manufacturers created RNAV systems that could take advantage of the already existing VORs and DMEs to produce waypoints for flight. With the use of cockpit parts and systems, the pilot could take advantage of specific radial distances to even program a waypoint that was far from a VOR station, opening up wide possibilities of instrument navigation.

As avionics manufacturers continued to advance and improve the capabilities of RNAV systems, pilots were able to increase their efficiency and navigational abilities with ease. The inertial navigation system, or INS, radically changed the ability of navigation at the time, and it allowed for aircraft movement to be measured through the use of gyros. As such, navigation could be measured completely internally as the gyros would be able to determine the rate at which the aircraft was travelling in a given direction. Additionally, such avionics would negate the need for ground radio stations once calibration and operations were checked. To ensure that measurements provided by the gyro were accurate, many aircraft would implement a redundant gyro so that measurements could be cross-referenced and corrected as needed.

Another major navigational instrument that predated the GPS was the LORAN. With system types such as the LORAN-C, aircraft could determine their latitude and longitude through the use of ground radio stations. To do this, the LORAN would transmit long-range radio signals at a low-frequency in order to garner highly accurate readings. As the LORAN system contained a database of airports and other aids, it could be used similarly to a GPS.

Since then, the GPS has served as the primary RNAV system that many pilots across the globe rely on. With its ability to communicate with satellites and provide extremely accurate positioning, pilots can now travel to almost any point on the world with the simple click of a button to program a destination. Due to the wide range at which RNAV systems are able to navigate, standardization has been put in place to ensure that each technology is separated by its capability. Generally, systems are certified on specific service levels, and crew members must all be trained in how the device is operated.

When you are in the market for RNAV systems and cockpit parts that you can rely on, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. As a leader among online part distributors, we provide customers access to an unrivaled inventory of new, used, and obsolete components. To ensure that our parts are of the highest quality, we choose to only source our inventory from top global manufacturers and subject all items to rigorous quality assurance testing. If you would like to receive a quote on parts that you are interested in, submit a completed RFQ form today. Once your form is received, our team members will rapidly review and respond to you in just 15 minutes or less to provide a personalized quote based on your needs.

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Landing gear is paramount to the operation of countless aircraft, allowing them to take-off, land, and move on runways and land-based surfaces. While permanently deployed landing gear systems are used on some aircraft, retractable systems are often the most desirable for their ability to minimize the amount of drag exerted on the plane when landing gear is not needed. In this blog, we will discuss the functionality of the retractable aircraft landing gear system, as well as emergency systems that ensure their deployment.

Depending on the aircraft and its implemented parts, landing gear systems may either be actuated and controlled through electricity or hydraulic fluid. For the operation of an electrical landing gear system, motors, gears, and jacks work together to raise and lower components as needed. A similar process can be done with hydraulic systems, albeit fluid pressure is used to overcome the forces needed for actuation instead of electricity. With both systems, deployment, retraction, and other movements are carried out by the pilot through the use of controls present on the flight deck. Located on a panel near pilots, a wheel-shaped gear switch allows for the adjustment of landing gear through various positions. To ensure that pilots know when it is safe to move landing gear and whether or not systems are already deployed, a variety of lights will be used for indication. Generally, lights will shine green when gears are down and amber lights will indicate gear being up or in transit. If the light is red, however, landing is unsafe and gear should not be deployed.

As the deployment of landing gear relies on a powering system, actuation may not be possible through normal means when there is a main power failure. As such, aircraft will implement a variety of systems that allow for the pilot to deploy landing gear through mechanical or hydraulic means for emergencies. In some aircraft, the emergency extension system will come in the form of a release handle that is located in the flight deck near the pilots. With mechanical linkages, the handle will force a gear unlock so that all systems free-fall into place through gravity. If there is more force needed to enact a gear unlock, pneumatic power may be implemented to assist the pilot.

For many smaller and lighter aircraft, hydraulic fluid may be used alongside a free-fall valve in order to achieve emergency gear extension. To achieve this, the pilots may actuate controls which results in the opening of a free-fall valve. As hydraulic fluids begin to adjust their positioning within the actuators, gear can be extended without the need of a power system. Additionally, the flow of air can also assist in the deployment of the landing gear during emergency situations once gear has been freed.

On larger aircraft, hydraulic systems are still used, though such systems are often redundant. As such, many high performance aircraft will not need to rely on emergency deployment systems as separate hydraulics may be used for deployment if the standard gears are not working. If there continues to be an issue that prevents the deployment of landing gear with a redundant hydraulic system, unlatching devices will be present to force a gear unlock for free-fall.

With the use of aircraft landing gear and emergency systems, the various procedures of land-based aircraft can be carried out with ease. When you are in need of landing gear components and other aircraft parts, ASAP NSN Hub is your sourcing solution with our unrivaled inventory and offerings. Explore our robust part catalogues today, and our team of industry experts are always on standby 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as needed. If you have any questions or would like to receive a quote on particular items, give us a call at +1-920-785-6790 or email today. 

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As aircraft continue to advance, more technology has come about to make the process of flight much easier for pilots and operators. With the primary flight display, pilots can have all the flight information they need on a single set of screens, and they no longer have to rely on mechanical gauges in order to utilize the altimeter, vertical navigation system, or other flight instruments. In this blog, we will provide an overview of the primary flight display, allowing you to become more familiar with the various aircraft instruments that are a part of it.

Replacing the traditional “six-pack” of older aircraft flight decks, the primary flight display allows for the pilot to monitor the attitude indicator, airspeed indicator, turn indicator, horizontal situation indicator, altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and much more. While the positioning of such instruments may vary by manufacturer, most generally provide similar information that is displayed on a screen as graphical representations of conventional mechanical gauges. If the aircraft has an autopilot system or instrument landing system capabilities, such information and control is also provided to the pilot through the primary flight display.

Primary flight displays first came about during the early 1980s when the Boeing 767 was fitted with a computerized cockpit display. Quickly becoming known as a “glass cockpit”, the primary flight display proved very popular and began to be implemented within more aircraft to replace traditional gauges. While the primary flight display allowed for pilots to have all their needed information in one area, they also brought color and movement to instruments that helped increase the efficiency of presented information. Typically, primary flight displays have CRT screens, which are a type of screen that is similar to an LCD. As the technology continues to advance and be improved upon, more instruments and information have been added for the benefit of the pilot, such as navigation and weather information.

Despite the fact that many gauges have now been made digital, the aircraft still utilizes the pitot-static system in order to measure vertical speed, altitude, airspeed, and other such flight factors. With the use of an air data computer, the recorded data can be analyzed before being provided to the pilot through the screen. While the digital format proves extremely useful for flight awareness and ease of information digestion, many aircraft will still have mechanical gauges present in the flight deck in order to act as backups for emergencies and redundancy.

As primary flight displays may vary by aircraft, it can sometimes make learning the layout more difficult for pilots as they may have to study specific aircraft models in advance to be fully knowledgeable of how data is presented. Furthermore, information may also be presented in different formats on various flight displays, and thus pilots need to be aware of what everything means for the specific aircraft that they will be operating.

Nevertheless, primary flight displays have radically changed how pilots operate aircraft, allowing them to have a plethora of digital information in real time in one area. In addition, flight displays allow for pilots to have their data presented vertically, allowing for trends to be tracked much easier. With newer models from various manufacturers, pilots may even be provided with optimal climb rates, angles, and other such information to further their flight efficiency.

Whether you are in the market for radio altimeters, pressure altitude components, or primary flight display parts, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub help you procure all that you need for your operations with rapid lead-times and competitive pricing. As a premier online distributor of aviation parts and components, we can help you secure the new, used, and obsolete items you need, all sourced from top global manufacturers. Peruse our robust part catalogues at your leisure, and our team of industry experts are available 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as necessary.

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During a flight operation, it is crucial that the pilot is always aware of their altitude, as the distance they are from the ground can affect various factors ranging from engine performance to general safety. While one could possibly estimate their height from visuals, such readings are nowhere near accurate and may not be possible during the night, while flying through clouds, or while having any other visual obstructions. To measure the height at which an aircraft is travelling, pilots rely on the altimeter, which is a flight instrument that utilizes outside air pressure to determine height.

While there are a variety of altimeter types available to pilots, the most commonly used instruments are barometric. As a general rule of thumb, air density and pressure of the atmosphere both decrease as one travels upwards, and the altimeter can directly measure this change to provide accurate readings. For a standard barometric altimeter, aneroid wafers are contained within a sealed chamber which is connected to the static port of the aircraft. As an aircraft ascends or descends, static pressure from outside of the aircraft is fed through the static port, causing the wafers to either expand or collapse. As the wafers adjust, a needle display on the instrument moves accordingly, allowing the pilot to be aware of their altitude. With standard weather conditions, the altimeter will typically change at a rate of 1.00” HG per 1,000 feet of climb.

While the altimeter is fairly accurate in reading changes of altitude by measuring air pressure, it itself cannot know exactly where the ground is located. Generally, pilots will set the instrument to function with a “zero feet” setting at sea level, allowing for the most accurate reading that can also be compared with other data. Nevertheless, altimeter settings may change slowly during the flight as weather, temperature, and other factors adjust. To maintain the accuracy of the instrument, pilots will need to be in period contact with air traffic controllers so that they can fine-tune their altimeters correctly throughout the flight.

Beyond barometric altimeters, there are also other types of altitude instruments available for pilots to use, each providing their own method of measurement. Radio altimeters are a type of instrument that utilize radio signals to determine height, and this is achieved through having radio signals sent towards the ground to bounce back up and be processed for height calculation. Generally, radio altimeters are only effective for up to 2,500 feet above ground, and they are typically more expensive. As a result, radio altimeters are most often used by larger aircraft such as airliners as a backup system for safety.

The vertical navigation system is another altitude measurement device that may be used for aircraft, and such instruments utilize GPS and satellites to determine height. At their current development, vertical navigation systems are not precise enough to be a primary system, but they can still be useful for obtaining altitude data nevertheless. Additionally, systems such as the instrument landing system (ILS) may also be used for receiving some altitude information as well. With the instrument landing system, pilots can be aware of factors such as their height as they approach a runway, utilizing radio navigation from beacons to conduct a safe landing. Devices such as the autopilot system also benefit from such readings, as altitude data can be fed to the autopilot system to hold altitude during flights.

Ensuring that your flight instruments function correctly is paramount to the operations of the aircraft and its systems, and one should always replace their parts and systems periodically and as needed to ensure safety and compliance. When you are in need of premium aircraft parts that you can rely on, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub Services help you secure all that you are searching for with ease. ASAP NSN Hub Services is a premier online distributor of aviation components, providing customers access to over 2 billion new, used, and obsolete items. Get started on the purchasing process today and receive a personalized quote in 15 minutes or less.

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For the majority of commercial airliners and fighter jets, the fuel used during flight is typically stored behind the seat of the pilot. But there are exceptions, which include larger aircrafts like the B747, which places large items of fuel in its wings. There is a purpose and design to this, though not many people are aware of this, much less why it is done. In this article, we will explore the reasons why such airlines choose to store their fuel in their wings and not in its usual space behind the pilot.

To put it simply (though it really is not that simple) the main reasons for airlines to do this has to do with balancing weight, counter stress and reducing wing flutter. Reducing wing flatter references an issue of balance and with “wet wings” the fuel tank is set inside the sealed aircraft wing structure and applied as a fuel tank so as to prevent the wing from leaning too back or too forward. Another reason why some airlines choose to store their fuel in wings is because it is much more cost efficient. The electrical and hydraulic components used to control the ailerons and flaps inside the wing take up just a tiny amount of space available so utilizing the wing to harbor fuel can be very efficient.

Placing the wings in the tank can also save up on costs. Large tanks require constant and consistent maintenance and mitigates the amount of payload (passengers or cargo) the aircraft can carry. With less maintenance and more payload, this design is much more cost efficient.

Weight balance and the airplanes’s center of gravity also has a lot to do with why airliners like to place their fuel in its wings. The wings are found near the aircraft’s centre of gravity so in the case that the plane is packed too heavily toward the front or back of the plane, the aircraft risks tipping over and affecting performance. Placing the fuel in the wings can potentially resolve this issue completely. Not only that, but storing the fuel at the centre of the aircraft means the center of gravity will be kept more or less constant during the flight, no matter how long it travels. If the fuel was stored at the nose or tail of the aircraft, the shift in momentum would be much larger. Any variation in the center of gravity is not recommended because it can further influence the aircraft’s stability.

Yet another (though darker) reason that airliners like to place their fuel in the wings is because it means that it will be placed further away from the passengers. If there is a fire emergency for example, the flames would be much farther away in the wings than in its usual place behind the pilots’ seat.

It’s important to understand the makeup of aircraft especially if you are working or dealing in the supply chain for aircraft parts. If you are in need of acquiring usch parts as wet wing parts, integral tank, fuel tank, ailerons, flaps, fuselage, sealants, or ather aviation parts, you can trust ASAP NSN Hub as your one stop shop and solution.

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A cylinder liner is a thin, metallic, cylinder-shaped part inserted into an engine block to form the inner wall of the cylinder. In some countries, it is known as a cylinder sleeve. Regardless of the name, it remains one of the most important functional parts of the interior of an engine. During use, cylinder liners are subject to wear and tear from the rubbing action of the piston rings and piston skirt, and must be able to withstand it. This wear is minimized by the application of a thin oil film that coats the walls of the cylinder and a layer of naturally-forming glaze that forms as the engine runs. Cylinder lines are expensive, precisely-manufactured, specialty parts, but their importance and benefits cannot be overstated.

Cylinder liners serve three primary functions: formation of a sliding surface, transfer of heat, and compression gas sealing. The cylinder liner, functioning as the inner wall of the cylinder, forms a sliding surface for the piston rings while retaining lubricant within. The use of a cylinder liner as a sliding surface provides four further benefits: high anti-galling properties, less wear on the cylinder liner itself, less wear on the partner piston ring, and less consumption of lubricant. Additionally, cylinder liners aid in the transfer of heat. Combustion heat is received by the cylinder liner via the piston and piston rings, which transmit heat to the coolant. Finally, cylinder liners offer compression gas sealing properties, preventing compressed and combustion gases from escaping the engine. To achieve this, a cylinder liner must be able to maintain its shape when exposed to high stress and high temperature in the cylinder.

There are three common types of cylinder liners: dry, wet, and finned cylinder liners. Dry cylinder liners are some of the most basic piston protectors. They must be able to withstand extremely high temperatures and protect the cylinder from impurities, so these are constructed of high-grade materials including case iron, ceramic-nickel plating, and more. Compared to wet liners, dry cylinders are much thinner. Additionally, dry cylinder liners do not interact with engine coolant but rather provide a very tight fit with the jacket in the cylinder block, thereby protecting the piston from heat and impurities.

Wet cylinder liners protect the pistons in a much different way than dry liners, but are made from the same hard material. Wet cylinder liners come in direct contact with engine coolant, hence the name ‘wet.’ In some cases, wet cylinder liners are fitted with tiny openings that help disperse heat and impurities. These types of liners are sometimes called water-jacket liners but are still considered a variant of the wet cylinder liner. If the liner is lacking a cooling jacket, one is created through the liner’s interaction with the jacket in the cylinder block.

The final type of cylinder linder, finned cylinder liners, are constructed of the same type of heat-resistant metal as the others. Finned liners are designed specifically for air-cooled engines, and their operation works much like the dry cylinder liner in that the primary cooling medium for the motor is air. These filters derive their name from the tiny fins they are fitted with which allow air to be drawn in with great force around the cylinder to provide further cooling.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of cylinder liners and cylinder block parts and deliver them with short lead times and competitive prices.For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.

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Seamless stainless steel tubing is found throughout aircraft hydraulic systems. It can be bent to shape much more easily than steel piping, withstand higher pressures, and connect more securely with proper hose fittings. Because a hose is only as good as the connection, it is critical to use high quality tubing or hose and fittings to foster a reliable seal. This is why aerospace hydraulic fittings of AS9100C and Nadcap quality are used in a wide range of industries. Components that meet these rigid requirements are used by OEMs and maintenance crews in industries such as civil aviation, aerospace and defense, industrial, as well as in construction, manufacturing, and commercial equipment. This blog will explain aerospace fittings, their types, and important considerations to make.

Unlike steel pipe, segments of steel tubing are usually attached with either flared or flareless fittings. These are the two main types of fittings. Flared fittings provide significant design and performance advantages over pipe fittings and can be used in both thin- and medium-wall tubing. In a flared fitting, the tubing is flared in preparation to install and secure the seal. It is made up of a sleeve and a nut, with the nut fitted and tightened over the sleeve. The nut draws the sleeve and flared tubing securely into a cone shaped male fitting to facilitate a seal. The sleeve also serves as a support to alleviate vibration at the flare, distributing the energy over a wider area.

As tube, hose, and fitting installations are used in critical applications such as aircraft, military equipment, heavy machinery, cranes, earth-moving equipment, and many other industrial sectors, the appropriate connection and torque are pivotal. Metal-to-metal contact between the fitting and flare is necessary to provide a reliable seal. For this reason, you should never apply pipe compound or sealing tape to the faces of the fitting or flare. It is also important to ensure the assembly is in alignment before applying the designated torque to the fittings.

The other type of fitting, flareless fittings, are used in medium- to high-pressure applications. These comprise a nut, single or double ferrule, and the fitting body. The nut and ferrules slide over a tube with an outer diameter that matches the inner diameter of the receiving fitting. As the nut is tightened to the appropriate torque, the ferrule is compressed against the tube, providing a seal. This is why flareless fittings are also known as compression fittings. One type of flareless fitting is the Military Standard (MS) flareless fitting. MS fittings are used in high pressure hydraulic systems (greater than 3,000 psi) in areas that will experience rigorous vibration of inconsistent pressure.

Additionally, O-Ring Boss (ORB) fittings are a type of fitting used for leak-tight connections. These fittings are very popular among aerospace equipment manufacturers and typically consist of a 90 durometer nitrile o-ring. There are two types of o-ring boss fittings: SAE straight-thread parts and face seal parts. Regardless of what type of fitting or fluid system components you are in need of, ASAP NSN Hub can find what you are looking for and get it to you quickly.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you source all types of fittings and aerospace standard parts and deliver them with some of the industry’s best lead times. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at +1-920-785-6790 or email us at Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.

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The kinetic energy of a jet airplane is extremely high due to the combination of the aircraft’s weight and speed. This energy is very difficult to eliminate because a jet aircraft has low drag when the nose wheel is on the ground, and the engines continue to produce forward thrust even when the power is idle. While brakes can normally suffice, there is need for a supplementary method of slowing. This is where thrust reversers come in. A thrust reverser is a device in the engine exhaust system that essentially reverses the path of exhaust gas flow. The flow is not able to reverse 180 degrees, but rather the final path of the gases is diverted 45 degrees from straight ahead. This, coupled with the losses in the reverse flow paths, results in an engine efficiency of about 50 percent, helping the brakes bring the aircraft to a stop.

A normal jet engine will have one of two types of thrust reverser: target or cascade. A target reverser features basic clamshell doors that open from the stowed position at the engine tailpipe. These doors swivel open, blocking and redirecting the outward flow of gases. Cascade reversers are markedly more complex. These are found on turbofan engines and are designed to reverse only the fan air. When activated, cascade reverser parts such as doors in the shroud open and block the airstream’s normal path, redirecting it forward to help slow the aircraft.

On most aircraft configurations, reverse thrust is applied with the thrust lever at idle by pulling up the reverse lever to a detent, which holds the lever in position. This leaves the engine at idle RPM during the slowing process. Reverse thrust is more effective at high speed than at low speed, for two reasons. The first is that the net amount of reverse thrust increases with speed, and the second is that the reverse power is greater at high speeds because of the engine’s increased work rate. In other terms, the aircraft’s kinetic energy is being displaced at higher rates when operating at higher power.

The proper time to apply reverse thrust often depends on the type or model of aircraft. Some aircraft tend to pitch nose up when reverse thrust is applied on landing, which can cause the aircraft to temporarily leave ground again. With aircraft of this type, the pilot must ensure that the aircraft is on the ground with the nose wheel firmly down before implementing reverse thrust. Specific procedures regarding operation of thrust reversers will be included in the FAA-approved AFM of an aircraft.

Thrust reversers on jet aircraft differ greatly from those on propeller aircraft. Idle reverse thrust on a propeller produces 60 percent of the reverse thrust available at full power, making it very effective when at this setting. Jet aircraft, on the other hand, produce very little reverse thrust at idle reverse. In a jet aircraft, the pilot must use full power reverse as soon as the plane is fully grounded and landing can be completed within the available runway distance. Accidental deployment of thrust reversers while airborne is a serious emergency, so reverser systems have multiple built-in lock systems. One system prevents the reversers from operating while airborne, and another to prevent operation when the thrust levers are improperly positioned.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the thrust reverser parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. In addition to this, our inventory of over 6 billion items features wheel brake parts, turbofan engine parts, aircraft propeller parts, and important components for aircraft engine exhaust systems. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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As one moves upward in altitude, the pressure of air decreases, making it harder for humans to breathe. Mount Everest’s peak lies at 29,000 feet, and oxygen levels have been described similar to breathing through a straw while on a treadmill. Thus, at 30,000 feet where many aircraft fly, it is a technological marvel that they are able to provide oxygen pressure that allows for safe and comfortable breathing for passengers. This is due to a complex aircraft cabin pressurization system which has been designed and improved upon by countless aircraft manufacturers over the history of aviation.

While many solutions for pressurized oxygen have existed over the years, the current method of providing pressurized air for the cabin of an aircraft is by using bleed air and compressors. Within the air compressor of the engine, air from the atmosphere is directed into spinning blades which heat up and compress air before it continues through the system. While much of this air is directed to the combustion chamber for fuel ignition and propulsion generation, some of the hot, compressed air is also used for other purposes. This clean and pressurized air is referred to as “bleed air” and it may be used for cabin pressurization, deicing operations, pneumatic pumps, and aiding engine starter motors.

For cabin pressurization and many other bleed air functions, the air must first be cooled down with the use of intercoolers which shed heat to ambient air. Air continues to cool with the use of air packs within the system that act as a refrigeration unit. Air is compressed to heat it, and another intercooler filters out the heat and expels it from the aircraft. The cooled air then expands within an expansion turbine before being mixed with recirculated air to be distributed throughout the airplane fuselage. Automatic outflow valves with pressure sensors regulate the amount of pressure to maintain safe levels. These valves are also used to cycle out old air that is vented from the aircraft.

Outside of preflight checks to ensure the functionality of the automatic pressure control system, pilots do not control pressurization during the flight operation. Nevertheless, in the case of a malfunction or emergency pilots can take control of automated functions and can manually adjust the outflow valve positioning. During ground support operations in between flights, testing equipment is used to detect pressure leaks, inoperable equipment, or any other issues that warrant immediate attention for safety measures.

At an altitude of 10,000 feet, pressure of the atmosphere is viable for safe breathing conditions, and this is the altitude that planes will fly at in an emergency situation caused by depressurization of the cabin. Nevertheless, aircraft cannot permanently fly at this ideal altitude for a number of reasons. As many mountain ranges and terrain surpass elevations of 10,000 feet, it would be unsafe for aircraft to fly at such a level, and harsher weather conditions often remain at such an altitude as well. Aircraft engines are also designed for optimal operation at much higher altitudes, thus it would be very inefficient to stay at 10,000 feet.

When it comes time to begin sourcing the turbofan engine parts and aircraft components that you need for your next project or operation, ASAP NSN Hub has you covered with everything you are searching for. ASAP NSN Hub is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aerospace components that you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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When working in the industrial industry, particularly in the manufacturing sector, you must handle various types of machinery and the parts that go along with it. There can be a variety of different nuts, bolts, and screws that pertain exclusively to certain parts. The hydraulic system is a perfect example of how complex the work is, as there are many different types of thread forms and sealing methods involved. Thread forms can be particularly difficult as they not immediately distinguishable from one another, thus making it difficult when doing modifications or repairs. To help ease your work, read the article below on how to use the process of elimination to identify a hydraulic hose fitting.

The first step is to determine the type of fitting. There are two types of hydraulic hose fittings: permanent and reusable. The former includes crimped hydraulic fittings and are mostly used in the fluid power industry because they are easier to attach than if you use reusable fittings. To connect a crimped fitting, you will need swaging or crimping materials. These fittings are squeezed onto the hose at assembly and are discarded when the hose assembly fails. With the latter, they are not commonly used as most people in the industry consider them much too old and more expensive. They are, however, easily identifiable because they can fit into a hose during assembly with just the use of a vise and a wrench.

After you’ve identified whether your fitting is permanent or reusable, you next need to identify the port and and connectors in the system. For example, NPT/NPTF can go with the 37° Flare and the BSPT (JIS-PT) goes with the 30° Flare (Metric). Following this, you would next identify the sealing method to determine if the hydraulic fitting is an O-ring, a mated angle or a tapered thread. From this point, you would then need to observe the fitting designs and use a seat gauge to determine seat angle.

The very last step in the process would be to measure the thread diameter of the largest point  with a caliper. Refer to a thread gauge to determine the number of threads per inch. You can ensure an accurate reading when you compare gauge and coupling threads against a lit background.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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If you look at the wings of an aircraft, sometimes you will see small thin wicks protruding from the outermost edge. These are called the static wicks of the aircraft, which are sometimes known as the static discharge wicks. These are a high electrical release device that have a lower corona voltage than that of the surrounding aircraft vessel. These static aircraft wicks were designed to dissipate the static electricity that builds up during each flight.

Aircraft wicks serve a very important purpose which is why it’s just as important to check them often and maintain them. But it’s also crucial that you understand more about the wicks themselves so that you can appreciate why it’s necessary to maintain them. When planes fly through snow, fog, dust, or ash, they are flying through uncharged particles. When negative charges attach to the airframe and positive charges deflect the particles build up and are eventually discharged at places along the airframe where the wicks are stationed at. Were it not for these wicks, there would be audio disturbances, potential loss of communication and weak radio transmissions.

As important as they are, static wicks can still be purchased without authorization of the FAA. There are some planes that can fly without them entirely. This is usually because the planes that do not use them tend not to fly through such uncharged particles. However it is always better to come prepared, which is why major commercial airlines will always carry and maintain static wicks. If you are interested in purchasing electronic controller parts, aviation plug connectors or other items, contact the team today.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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An aircraft wick, commonly known as static wicks or static discharge wicks, is a high electrical resistance device with a lower corona voltage than the surrounding aircraft structure. Physically, they look like long thin extensions that are located outboard trailing edges of the wings. Their purpose is to dissipate the static electricity that can accumulate during flight. Because they serve an important purpose, it’s extra crucial to take good care of the wicks.

To elaborate more on this, you have to first understand what exactly the aircraft wick is and what it does. As you fly through areas of uncharged particles, which can exist in the atmosphere as rain, snow, fog, dust or ash, positive charges deflect and negative charges attach to the airframe, building up and eventually discharging at certain points of the airframe where the static wicks are generally attached. If these wicks were not in place, there would be potential for audio disturbances, weak radio transmissions and even complete loss of communication. Other possible indications of static discharge include erratic instrument readouts, erroneous magnetic compass readings and a phenomenon called St. Elmo’s Fire, where the static discharge is visible.

The interesting thing about static wicks is that they can be purchased with or without FAA approval. Some planes can even fly without them. While they serve a very important purpose of dissipating static particles, some planes get on without them because these planes simply do not fly through such heavy amounts of particles (ie fog, snow, rain, etc.). However, like in most examples, it is always better to err on the side of caution. All commercial planes will have some form of static wick in the case that the do have a need for them in flight.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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The rudder is one of the most important control surfaces used to direct a ship, boat, submarine, aircraft, or any other vehicle that moves through air or water. The rudder is an important component in ensuring safe flight, preventing unwanted roll and yaw as well as uncontrolled banking. Mastering rudder control will make you a better pilot and give you the tools to control your aircraft through inclement conditions.

The rudder is flight control surface mounted on an aircraft’s vertical stabilizer or fin that regulates rotation along the vertical axis of an aircraft. This vertical movement is referred to as yaw, and controlling yaw is the primary purpose of the rudder. This is unlike a boat, where the rudder is used to steer the vessel.

In the majority of aircraft, the rudder is controlled by rudder pedals on the flight deck which are connected to the rudder itself. Force applied on a rudder pedal will cause a corresponding movement of the rudder in the same direction. Therefore, pressing the right rudder pedal will cause the rudder to deflect to the right. This will then cause the aircraft’s vertical axis to rotate and move the nose of the aircraft rightward. This can cause a great deal of stress on a rudder, so larger and high performance aircraft will be fitted with hydraulic actuators to help the rudder withstand these extreme conditions.

As aircraft speed increases, so too will rudder performance. At lower speeds, significant rudder input is required to yield noticeable results. Inversely, at higher speeds smaller rudder movements have significant effect. This can create problems, so many sophisticated aircraft will limit their rudder’s movement when the aircraft exceeds maneuvering speed to prevent sudden changes in direction that cause serious structural damage to the aircraft.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the rudder components for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at 1-920-785-6790 or send us an email at

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If you have been on an aircraft flight before, you may know that passenger cabins can get very chilly or even very stuffy and hot depending on the flight. With one simple twist of the overhead fan, air conditioning (A/C) can make your ride much more of a pleasant experience. But how does this seemingly simple solution to our flight comfort actually work?

Aircraft air conditioning is supplied by air that is processed through two packs that work to regulate airflow and temperature as required. Despite there being many types of aircraft, the air conditioning system principles and operations remain the same. A/C packs are often located near the main landing gear of the plane on the left and right wings and remove excessive heat using bleed air that enters the packs from the aircraft bleed air system, supplying air to cabins at the desired temperature. The A/C system is based on an ACM (Air Cycle Machine) cooling device and is often called the “Pack”, or air conditioning package.

The aircraft pneumatic system is supplied by bleed air tap-offs on each engine compressor section and supplies the air cycle conditioning system. The bleed air is then directed from the pneumatic manifold into the primary heat exchanger of the packs. This bleed air is cycled through the primary exchanger where ram air removes some of the heat before it is compressed and enters the secondary heat exchanger to continue the cooling process. Cross flow of ram air continues to remove heat before the air moves into the ACM turbine inlet.

After leaving the secondary heat exchanger, bleed air moves through the hot side of the reheater for a first time before being cooled down using colder air from the condenser. The bleed air temperature is increased as it passes through the reheater a second time before moving into the turbine section. By increasing the temperature in the pack, the efficiency of the turbine is also increased. The ACM works to decrease the air temperature by expanding it through a turbine.

As the air leaves the turbine, it passes through the colder side of the condenser, decreasing the temperature of the air to a point below the dew point which turns the vapor into a liquid. Moving from the turbine into the water extractor, moisture is removed and goes to the water spray nozzles which sprays the water into the ram air duct. This works to cool the ram air stream, increasing the cooling efficiency by evaporation.

The passenger cabins are supplied with conditioned air from the mix manifold as the air moves through rise ducts and the side walls before exiting through the overhead distribution duct. The flight cabin is given conditioned air from the left pack and mix manifold, or the right pack if the left is not functioning. 50 percent of the cabin air is recycled for ventilation purposes by recirculation systems that use two fans to move air from the passenger compartment into the mix manifold.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the aircraft air conditioning system parts you need and more, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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An aircraft heating system is integral for safe operation of an aircraft. In the duration of its flight cycle, an aircraft will encounter volatile temperature changes and a heating system can help ensure all aircraft components maintain their necessary temperature for efficient and reliable operation. Two heating systems that are frequently utilized in aviation are exhaust heaters and combustion heaters. The systems share one similarity— both utilize the heating of ambient air, or ram air. Let’s take a look at how these heater systems work.

Exhaust heaters are most commonly seen on smaller, single-engine aircraft. The unit is installed around part of the engine’s exhaust system and is sometimes referred to as an exhaust shroud heater. An exhaust manifold delivers warm exhaust into the metal shroud. Ram air is also brought into the shroud from outside of the aircraft. The air is warmed by the exhaust, then routed through a heater valve to the cabin. In some models, the air is routed to the carburetor as well. Exhaust is then transferred to an outlet.

This type of heater doesn’t need an independent electrical system or engine power to operate, making it efficient in a small aircraft. However, this system is hazardous in the event of failures or defects within its hardware— a small crack in the shroud or exhaust manifold has the potential to leak lethal levels of carbon monoxide into the cabin. This system requires rigorous maintenance efforts to keep it operating safely.

Combustion heaters are seen on various aircraft sizes. A combustion system operates independently from the engine, and only relies on engine fuel from the main fuel system. The system incorporates a ventilating air system, fuel system, and ignition system to heat various components of an aircraft. In order to heat incoming air from the ventilating system, the combustion unit integrates an independent combustion system within a shroud in a heater unit, where fuel and air are mixed and ignited within an inner chamber.

Air intended for combustion is provided by a blower, which pulls air from outside the aircraft and ensures the air is pressurized to the correct specifications. Ram air is collected when the aircraft is grounded, through a ventilating air fan. The ram air is circulated around the combustion chamber and outer shroud, allowing it to heat through convection. Following this process, the heated air is then directed to the cabin. Exhaust from the same process is expelled from the aircraft.

A combustion unit is extremely versatile, which is why it is used on a variety of aircraft. Most are controlled and monitored by a pilot through a cabin heat switch and thermostat and incorporate various redundant safety features. These might include an overheat switch or duct limit.

As is recommended for any other aircraft system, it is important to follow aircraft manufacturer instructions and protocols in the maintenance of exhaust or combustion heaters.  Maintenance guidelines should specify intervals between maintenance and operational checks and should be stringently adhered to in order to ensure safe operation of an aircraft heating system.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the exhaust heating system parts, spark plug parts, and aircraft heating systems parts you’re looking for, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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