Aviation headsets are a common equipment piece for aircraft, permitting pilots and crew members to conduct radio and intra-cabin communication. Additionally, headsets are also crucial for hearing protection and maintaining clear communication as they block ambient noises and reduce sound levels for the comfort and ease of the user. As an essential element of many flight operations, it is important to properly maintain and clean aviation headsets so that they can continue to function properly for a long period of time.

Aviation headsets can be an expensive investment, often ranging upwards of $1,000 or more depending on the features, brand, and capabilities they offer. As a well cared for headset can provide its user with a service life upwards of ten or so years, such equipment is worth protecting. While most headsets are easy to use and may only need to be plugged into an interface for their basic functionality, there are common protection practices and maintenance procedures that should be followed by pilots to maintain the health of all equipment.

Whenever one is finishing a flight and removes their headset, one of the most simplistic ways in which they can be properly protected is to be stored correctly. Headsets should never be left out in the sun unattended as heat and light can easily damage certain materials and sensitive electronics. Additionally, the sunlight may heat up certain surfaces enough to burn one’s skin if not careful. As such, the headset should be stored out of the path of sunlight, even if one is simply stopping for a short amount of time. Furthermore, headsets should be stored in such a way that they are guarded against moisture and extreme temperatures as well.

For the long term storage of headsets, pilots should utilize either a case or a protective flight bag so that equipment can be transported safely. It is paramount that headsets are not haphazardly thrown into storage with other items as the microphone, earphones, or other equipment pieces may become damaged or broken. To prevent such occurrences, the best storage options are those that allow the pilot to secure the headset with padding and straps.

As headsets are equipment pieces that face constant use, various materials can break down or wear out over time. Ear seals, fabric inserts, the head pad, and microphone are all pieces that commonly face the most wear, thus they may be replaced regularly for proper maintenance. Beyond being beneficial for the service life of the headset itself, replacing wearable parts can also make such equipment more comfortable to wear and may even improve performance in some regards. Depending on how frequently one flies, the interval of replacements can range from every six months to every year and a half, though flaking materials are always a sign that it may be time for replacement. Luckily, replacing most parts of a headset is very quick, often only taking a handful of minutes for each part.

The cables and connectors of aviation headsets are paramount for their functionality, requiring ample protection. Cables have the chance of becoming damaged and frayed over time if treated incorrectly, thus pilots always need to handle such components with care. It is important that cables are never pulled out of interfaces with force, and cabling should be neatly organized and stored to avoid twisting, wrapping, and strain. If cables are long and a more proper solution is needed, certain clips, boxes, and mounting tools may be employed within the cockpit to remove any strain on cabling.

Through the proper maintenance and care of aviation headsets, such equipment can provide many years of reliable operations for the benefit of flight communication. If you are in need of various headset components for replacement, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform for aircraft components, and we utilize our market expertise and purchasing power to save our customers time and money when procuring all they need for their operations. Get started with a personalized quote on items you are interested in today when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website.


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Electrical circuits and devices are complex systems, and their intricate and numerous components can make troubleshooting somewhat difficult. While one could test the overall functionality of a component through more manual means, tools such as ammeters are much more beneficial for troubleshooting a circuit with their ability to gather various readings. Ammeters are capable of measuring the amount of current present within a circuit, and they garner current readings in the form of amperes. As there are various types of ammeters available as well as similar devices such as galvanometers, it is important to understand the role of such instruments and how they differ from others.

Unlike measurements of voltage and resistance, measuring current requires the meter to become a part of the circuit itself. Digital and analog ammeter instruments are the most common type, and both utilize a separate or included jack in order to attach the test lead plug to the circuit. While ammeters are primarily designed for measuring current, many can still provide readings for voltage and resistance as well. As many models may differ from one another, it is best to refer to manufacturer specifications or the owner’s manual for how measurements may be conducted.

When an ammeter is connected to the circuit through its leads, current will pass through the device and a measurement is made. If there are no issues with the circuit, no voltage should be dropped during the process. The readings of digital and analog ammeters are slightly different, and many say that analog ammeters are more difficult to read. Despite this, the continuous movement of the needle across the indicator dial allows for a more thorough and precise measurement in regard to current changes. It is important to enact caution when conducting measurements with any ammeter, as a surge in current can damage the instrument and its components. As such, a meter may have a fuse or specific device settings to protect itself.

Ammeters are often compared to other measurement devices such as galvanometers, but the two should not be confused with one another. While the ammeter is used for measuring current, voltage, and resistance, the galvanometer is a mechanical device that indicates the magnitude and direction of current. Galvanometers are also not used for measuring alternating current, and they require a magnetic field in order to achieve their readings. As such, both devices are fairly similar in their ability to measure electronic circuit properties, though their different roles and characteristics set the two devices apart.

In the case that an ammeter needs to measure a system that exhibits an unsafe current level, the ammeter may be placed in parallel with a shunt resistor. A shunt resistor often comes in the form of a high precision manganin resistor that has a low resistance value. With this setup, the current is reduced by the shunt resistor before entering the ammeter, and a reading is obtained. As the voltage resistance is already known before conducting a measurement, the read value can be scaled back to the original amperage while ensuring the safety of the measurement device.

When you are in need of measurement devices for troubleshooting electrical circuits, ASAP NSN Hub is your sourcing solution with top quality instruments and parts. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform, offering customers access to countless aviation parts, board level components, NSN parts, and more. We guarantee the quality of our inventory, only selling warrantied and traceable products that have been sourced from leading manufacturers. Additionally, we conduct thorough quality assurance testing and inspection prior to shipment. When you are ready to begin the purchasing process, fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less with a competitive quote. 


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During a normal travel year, airliners may constantly be operating as they land and takeoff around the world to transport passengers. Due to the sheer number of operations taking place each day, aircraft require quick turnovers upon landing so that they can continue on to their next destination with rapid succession. Despite the process of landing to take off being very rapid, there are numerous crucial procedures that are carried out to ensure an aircraft is properly situated for another flight. In this blog, we will discuss the steps taken upon landing an aircraft to the moment that it lifts off once again, allowing you to best understand how the turnover process is conducted.

Upon touching down on a runway, the first step that is carried out is to have the pilots communicate with ground controllers to safely taxi across the runway. Runways can be very busy areas with numerous hazards, thus it is crucial that proper direction is given for efficient management. With the assistance of a ramp team leader, pilots will be directed to their assigned gate and can then line themselves up correctly. Depending on the airport and its configuration, a pilot may be guided with the use of a lead-in lighting system or may follow instructions provided by the ramp lead. Once the nose wheel has been positioned correctly in the space, the plane can park itself.

As the jet engine or APU may use a great amount of power that is more beneficial for flight, a ground power system or generator will typically be connected to the aircraft to provide electricity while personnel prepare for passenger disembarking. Once the engines have been shut down and power has been established through external means, air conditioning is also provided externally to ensure passenger comfort. Depending on the size of the aircraft, one or two connections may be needed to sufficiently cool or heat the cabin.

In order to allow passengers to safely leave the aircraft, the gate may be attached to the cabin door or a truck or car with mounted stairs will position itself next to the fuselage. While most airliners will need either a gate or mounted stairs to leave the cabin, some smaller regional jets may be close enough to the ground and have built-in staircases for entering and exiting. While passengers are leaving, the ramp team will have already begun removing luggage and cargo into a baggage cart so that it can be transported to the baggage room and then the carousel. As jumbo jets can often carry large amounts of baggage that needs to quickly be removed, cargo pods serve as a solution that only requires one worker for operations while bags are placed.

In order to prepare for the next flight, catering trucks and a crew will restock the galley carts with more food and drinks, and they will often have lifts or other equipment to easily get materials inside the aircraft. Meanwhile, the cabin seats and toilets are cleaned, restocked with supplies, and checked so that everything is prepped and ready to go for the next set of passengers. As the last major procedure for preparing the aircraft, the fuel needed for the next operation is calculated and then the tanks are replenished as needed with the use of a tanker truck.

Once all preparations have been completed, the next round of passengers can board the aircraft and find their seats. Once pre-flight preparations are finalized, the cabin door is sealed and tugs or tractors will begin moving the aircraft away from the gate. From that point, the aircraft will work with air traffic control to begin the takeoff procedure and liftoff. Once the aircraft is safely in the air, crew members and pilots can return to their normal operations until the next destination is reached and the cycle begins again.

At ASAP NSN Hub, we serve as a premier supplier of aviation parts and components that have been sourced from top global manufacturers that we trust. Utilizing our purchasing power and market expertise, we can leverage competitive prices and rapid lead-times to save you money and time. If you find particular items that you are interested in, you may request a quote at any time through our RFQ services and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you to continue the process within 15 minutes of receiving your completed form. Get started today and see why customers choose to rely on ASAP NSN Hub for their operational needs. 


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An underwater locator beacon (ULB), also known as an underwater locating device or underwater acoustic beacon, is a device affixed to aviation flight recorders such as the cockpit voice recorder, flight data recorder, and aircraft fuselage. The device activates by being immersed in water, at which point it is designed to emit an ultrasonic pulse of 37.5 kHz every second for a minimum of 30 days. ULBs attached to the airframe are called low frequency ULBs and transmit the pulse at 8.8 kHz. These devices are not only designed to survive accidents, but to remain fully functioning after impact. Research from 2011 determined that ULBs had a 90% survival rate over nearly thirty above-sea air accidents.

As of January 1, 2020, new European aviation safety regulations on air operations dictate that the transmission time of the ULBs attached to the flight recorders must be extended from 30 to 90 days. The same ruling dictates that large aircraft flying routes more than 180 nautical miles from a shore must be equipped with an additional low frequency ULB on the airframe. Low-frequency ULBs must comply with ETSO-C200 regulations or equivalent, and cannot be installed in the wings or empennage.

Low frequency ULBs have a very long detection range allowing them to provide effective assistance in reducing the time and cost of locating wreckage. They transmit an 8.8 kHz acoustic signal (ping) for at least 90 days and the low frequency provides an increased detection of 7-12 nautical miles, four times greater than the standard ULBs installed on flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders. The maximum operational depth of a low frequency ULB is 20,000 feet and they can be activated by immersion in both salt and freshwater. The battery is a lithium single cell type with a service life of at least six years. The ULB assembly itself comprises the ULB DK180 Beacon, a mounting kit, and an adapter plate.

An aircraft maintenance program is needed to guarantee that procedures for testing the ULB, which is conducted concurrently with battery replacement, provide functional testing of the ULB before replacing the old battery to ensure that the device is still functioning properly. The maintenance program should consist of standard periodic maintenance, such as regular checking of the device operation as it pertains to manufacturer requirements, life limits on the battery of the ULB, and the cleaning of the switch contacts. When installing the ULB on the flight recorder, it is critical to make sure that the switch contacts are arranged such that they are not likely to contribute to the build-up of debris that could cause the contacts to inadvertently short. To do this, the contacts should be vertical or downward-facing.

The ULB is a crucial device in emergency situations. As such, it is best practice to ensure you are getting yours from a trusted source. For underwater locator beacons and much more, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, electronics, industrial, and IT hardware markets. Our account managers are always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790. Let us show you why we consider ourselves the future of purchasing.


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Whether you are driving an automobile or piloting a passenger aircraft, being aware of your current speed while traveling is paramount to safety, navigation & route planning, and much more. For the measurement of aircraft speed, such vehicles rely on a flight instrument known as an airspeed indicator. As a part of the pitot-static system, the airspeed indicator is a required installation mandated by the FAA to ensure proper speeds while taking off, descending, landing, and cruising.

While the speedometer of an automobile is often sufficient enough to discern current speeds for drivers, an aircraft has to take into account wind, the density of the surrounding atmosphere, possible instrument errors, and other factors that can make the measurement of aircraft speed more complicated. With four types of airspeed obtainable from instruments and calculations, pilots can find the indicated airspeed, true airspeed, calibrated airspeed, and groundspeed of their aircraft during operations.

With the base measurements provided by the airspeed indicator, pilots can find the indicated airspeed of the aircraft. While indicated airspeed is a measurement garnered from the pitot-static system, it is a reading that has not been adjusted for any standard errors. As such, pressure and temperature variables are used to correct the indicated airspeed to find true airspeed. With both measurements, pilots can oversee the general performance of their aircraft throughout a flight operation.

Beyond indicated airspeed and true airspeed, pilots can also calculate calibrated airspeed by utilizing standard position and instrumentation errors in order to correct the indicated airspeed value. For groundspeed, true airspeed is adjusted for wind to achieve a value. Through instrument measurements, adjustments for errors, and various calculations, pilots can find each of the four types of airspeed to safely travel. Before pilots can receive indicated airspeed to find the other three types, however, they must first measure and compare air pressure through instrumentation. While the assembly of instrumentation and pitot-static lines may vary from aircraft to aircraft, all airspeed indicators will rely on static ports, static lines, pitot tubes, pitot lines, cases, pressure diaphragms, and instrument faces.

With the static port, areas that exhibit fairly undisturbed airflow can be used to gather air at ambient pressures. Through static lines, static pressure can be transferred from ports to the instrument, and a line is required for each port that is present on the fuselage. With the pitot tubes, on the other hand, relative wind is captured and collected for ram air pressure measurements. Generally, pitot tubes are specifically placed and aligned with the surrounding airflow, ensuring that the pressure is relative to the moving speed of the aircraft. Once air enters the inlets, it will then move through pitot lines to the airspeed indicator instrument. Unlike static pressure, the pressure captured by pitot tubes is transported into the housed pressure diaphragm to create a reading that may be displayed on the instrument face.

For the operation of an airspeed indicator, the air pressure differential is measured. To carry out such measurements, air is provided to the airspeed indicator from both the pitot and static tube. As ram air from the pitot tube enters the diaphragm, the difference between air pressures will cause the diaphragm to either expand or retract. As the diaphragm adjusts, the needle on the face of the instrument will move in unison to denote the indicated airspeed. Unlike other instruments such as the altimeter and vertical speed indicator that only rely on static ports, airspeed indicators require a functional and unblocked pitot-static system to operate.

With a functional and well-maintained airspeed indicator and pitot-static system, pilots can safely traverse the skies while following safe speeds for their various operations. When you are in search of aircraft instrumentation and other aerospace components, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub help you secure everything you need with ease. Explore our expansive offerings and begin the purchasing process today when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website.


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In the days of aviation before the release of the Global Positioning System (GPS), pilots had to rely on a number of systems and methods in order to navigate and reach their destination efficiently. While visual flight rule (VFR) pilots can utilize physical landmarks to discern and navigate their surroundings, such methods would prove fruitless when vision is obstructed during certain weather patterns or times of the day. As such, pilots had to rely on VOR ground stations to traverse from one point to the other with instrumentation.

Before the GPS revolutionized aerial navigation, pilots steadily relied on a number of older area navigation (RNAV) technologies. RNAV is a method of carrying out instrument flight rule (IFR) navigation, and it consists of utilizing navigation beacons to set a course. At the time, many avionics manufacturers created RNAV systems that could take advantage of the already existing VORs and DMEs to produce waypoints for flight. With the use of cockpit parts and systems, the pilot could take advantage of specific radial distances to even program a waypoint that was far from a VOR station, opening up wide possibilities of instrument navigation.

As avionics manufacturers continued to advance and improve the capabilities of RNAV systems, pilots were able to increase their efficiency and navigational abilities with ease. The inertial navigation system, or INS, radically changed the ability of navigation at the time, and it allowed for aircraft movement to be measured through the use of gyros. As such, navigation could be measured completely internally as the gyros would be able to determine the rate at which the aircraft was travelling in a given direction. Additionally, such avionics would negate the need for ground radio stations once calibration and operations were checked. To ensure that measurements provided by the gyro were accurate, many aircraft would implement a redundant gyro so that measurements could be cross-referenced and corrected as needed.

Another major navigational instrument that predated the GPS was the LORAN. With system types such as the LORAN-C, aircraft could determine their latitude and longitude through the use of ground radio stations. To do this, the LORAN would transmit long-range radio signals at a low-frequency in order to garner highly accurate readings. As the LORAN system contained a database of airports and other aids, it could be used similarly to a GPS.

Since then, the GPS has served as the primary RNAV system that many pilots across the globe rely on. With its ability to communicate with satellites and provide extremely accurate positioning, pilots can now travel to almost any point on the world with the simple click of a button to program a destination. Due to the wide range at which RNAV systems are able to navigate, standardization has been put in place to ensure that each technology is separated by its capability. Generally, systems are certified on specific service levels, and crew members must all be trained in how the device is operated.

When you are in the market for RNAV systems and cockpit parts that you can rely on, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. As a leader among online part distributors, we provide customers access to an unrivaled inventory of new, used, and obsolete components. To ensure that our parts are of the highest quality, we choose to only source our inventory from top global manufacturers and subject all items to rigorous quality assurance testing. If you would like to receive a quote on parts that you are interested in, submit a completed RFQ form today. Once your form is received, our team members will rapidly review and respond to you in just 15 minutes or less to provide a personalized quote based on your needs.


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Landing gear is paramount to the operation of countless aircraft, allowing them to take-off, land, and move on runways and land-based surfaces. While permanently deployed landing gear systems are used on some aircraft, retractable systems are often the most desirable for their ability to minimize the amount of drag exerted on the plane when landing gear is not needed. In this blog, we will discuss the functionality of the retractable aircraft landing gear system, as well as emergency systems that ensure their deployment.

Depending on the aircraft and its implemented parts, landing gear systems may either be actuated and controlled through electricity or hydraulic fluid. For the operation of an electrical landing gear system, motors, gears, and jacks work together to raise and lower components as needed. A similar process can be done with hydraulic systems, albeit fluid pressure is used to overcome the forces needed for actuation instead of electricity. With both systems, deployment, retraction, and other movements are carried out by the pilot through the use of controls present on the flight deck. Located on a panel near pilots, a wheel-shaped gear switch allows for the adjustment of landing gear through various positions. To ensure that pilots know when it is safe to move landing gear and whether or not systems are already deployed, a variety of lights will be used for indication. Generally, lights will shine green when gears are down and amber lights will indicate gear being up or in transit. If the light is red, however, landing is unsafe and gear should not be deployed.

As the deployment of landing gear relies on a powering system, actuation may not be possible through normal means when there is a main power failure. As such, aircraft will implement a variety of systems that allow for the pilot to deploy landing gear through mechanical or hydraulic means for emergencies. In some aircraft, the emergency extension system will come in the form of a release handle that is located in the flight deck near the pilots. With mechanical linkages, the handle will force a gear unlock so that all systems free-fall into place through gravity. If there is more force needed to enact a gear unlock, pneumatic power may be implemented to assist the pilot.

For many smaller and lighter aircraft, hydraulic fluid may be used alongside a free-fall valve in order to achieve emergency gear extension. To achieve this, the pilots may actuate controls which results in the opening of a free-fall valve. As hydraulic fluids begin to adjust their positioning within the actuators, gear can be extended without the need of a power system. Additionally, the flow of air can also assist in the deployment of the landing gear during emergency situations once gear has been freed.

On larger aircraft, hydraulic systems are still used, though such systems are often redundant. As such, many high performance aircraft will not need to rely on emergency deployment systems as separate hydraulics may be used for deployment if the standard gears are not working. If there continues to be an issue that prevents the deployment of landing gear with a redundant hydraulic system, unlatching devices will be present to force a gear unlock for free-fall.

With the use of aircraft landing gear and emergency systems, the various procedures of land-based aircraft can be carried out with ease. When you are in need of landing gear components and other aircraft parts, ASAP NSN Hub is your sourcing solution with our unrivaled inventory and offerings. Explore our robust part catalogues today, and our team of industry experts are always on standby 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as needed. If you have any questions or would like to receive a quote on particular items, give us a call at +1-920-785-6790 or email sales@asapnsnhub.com today. 


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As aircraft continue to advance, more technology has come about to make the process of flight much easier for pilots and operators. With the primary flight display, pilots can have all the flight information they need on a single set of screens, and they no longer have to rely on mechanical gauges in order to utilize the altimeter, vertical navigation system, or other flight instruments. In this blog, we will provide an overview of the primary flight display, allowing you to become more familiar with the various aircraft instruments that are a part of it.

Replacing the traditional “six-pack” of older aircraft flight decks, the primary flight display allows for the pilot to monitor the attitude indicator, airspeed indicator, turn indicator, horizontal situation indicator, altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and much more. While the positioning of such instruments may vary by manufacturer, most generally provide similar information that is displayed on a screen as graphical representations of conventional mechanical gauges. If the aircraft has an autopilot system or instrument landing system capabilities, such information and control is also provided to the pilot through the primary flight display.

Primary flight displays first came about during the early 1980s when the Boeing 767 was fitted with a computerized cockpit display. Quickly becoming known as a “glass cockpit”, the primary flight display proved very popular and began to be implemented within more aircraft to replace traditional gauges. While the primary flight display allowed for pilots to have all their needed information in one area, they also brought color and movement to instruments that helped increase the efficiency of presented information. Typically, primary flight displays have CRT screens, which are a type of screen that is similar to an LCD. As the technology continues to advance and be improved upon, more instruments and information have been added for the benefit of the pilot, such as navigation and weather information.

Despite the fact that many gauges have now been made digital, the aircraft still utilizes the pitot-static system in order to measure vertical speed, altitude, airspeed, and other such flight factors. With the use of an air data computer, the recorded data can be analyzed before being provided to the pilot through the screen. While the digital format proves extremely useful for flight awareness and ease of information digestion, many aircraft will still have mechanical gauges present in the flight deck in order to act as backups for emergencies and redundancy.

As primary flight displays may vary by aircraft, it can sometimes make learning the layout more difficult for pilots as they may have to study specific aircraft models in advance to be fully knowledgeable of how data is presented. Furthermore, information may also be presented in different formats on various flight displays, and thus pilots need to be aware of what everything means for the specific aircraft that they will be operating.

Nevertheless, primary flight displays have radically changed how pilots operate aircraft, allowing them to have a plethora of digital information in real time in one area. In addition, flight displays allow for pilots to have their data presented vertically, allowing for trends to be tracked much easier. With newer models from various manufacturers, pilots may even be provided with optimal climb rates, angles, and other such information to further their flight efficiency.

Whether you are in the market for radio altimeters, pressure altitude components, or primary flight display parts, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub help you procure all that you need for your operations with rapid lead-times and competitive pricing. As a premier online distributor of aviation parts and components, we can help you secure the new, used, and obsolete items you need, all sourced from top global manufacturers. Peruse our robust part catalogues at your leisure, and our team of industry experts are available 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as necessary.


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During a flight operation, it is crucial that the pilot is always aware of their altitude, as the distance they are from the ground can affect various factors ranging from engine performance to general safety. While one could possibly estimate their height from visuals, such readings are nowhere near accurate and may not be possible during the night, while flying through clouds, or while having any other visual obstructions. To measure the height at which an aircraft is travelling, pilots rely on the altimeter, which is a flight instrument that utilizes outside air pressure to determine height.

While there are a variety of altimeter types available to pilots, the most commonly used instruments are barometric. As a general rule of thumb, air density and pressure of the atmosphere both decrease as one travels upwards, and the altimeter can directly measure this change to provide accurate readings. For a standard barometric altimeter, aneroid wafers are contained within a sealed chamber which is connected to the static port of the aircraft. As an aircraft ascends or descends, static pressure from outside of the aircraft is fed through the static port, causing the wafers to either expand or collapse. As the wafers adjust, a needle display on the instrument moves accordingly, allowing the pilot to be aware of their altitude. With standard weather conditions, the altimeter will typically change at a rate of 1.00” HG per 1,000 feet of climb.

While the altimeter is fairly accurate in reading changes of altitude by measuring air pressure, it itself cannot know exactly where the ground is located. Generally, pilots will set the instrument to function with a “zero feet” setting at sea level, allowing for the most accurate reading that can also be compared with other data. Nevertheless, altimeter settings may change slowly during the flight as weather, temperature, and other factors adjust. To maintain the accuracy of the instrument, pilots will need to be in period contact with air traffic controllers so that they can fine-tune their altimeters correctly throughout the flight.

Beyond barometric altimeters, there are also other types of altitude instruments available for pilots to use, each providing their own method of measurement. Radio altimeters are a type of instrument that utilize radio signals to determine height, and this is achieved through having radio signals sent towards the ground to bounce back up and be processed for height calculation. Generally, radio altimeters are only effective for up to 2,500 feet above ground, and they are typically more expensive. As a result, radio altimeters are most often used by larger aircraft such as airliners as a backup system for safety.

The vertical navigation system is another altitude measurement device that may be used for aircraft, and such instruments utilize GPS and satellites to determine height. At their current development, vertical navigation systems are not precise enough to be a primary system, but they can still be useful for obtaining altitude data nevertheless. Additionally, systems such as the instrument landing system (ILS) may also be used for receiving some altitude information as well. With the instrument landing system, pilots can be aware of factors such as their height as they approach a runway, utilizing radio navigation from beacons to conduct a safe landing. Devices such as the autopilot system also benefit from such readings, as altitude data can be fed to the autopilot system to hold altitude during flights.

Ensuring that your flight instruments function correctly is paramount to the operations of the aircraft and its systems, and one should always replace their parts and systems periodically and as needed to ensure safety and compliance. When you are in need of premium aircraft parts that you can rely on, let the experts at ASAP NSN Hub Services help you secure all that you are searching for with ease. ASAP NSN Hub Services is a premier online distributor of aviation components, providing customers access to over 2 billion new, used, and obsolete items. Get started on the purchasing process today and receive a personalized quote in 15 minutes or less.


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For the majority of commercial airliners and fighter jets, the fuel used during flight is typically stored behind the seat of the pilot. But there are exceptions, which include larger aircrafts like the B747, which places large items of fuel in its wings. There is a purpose and design to this, though not many people are aware of this, much less why it is done. In this article, we will explore the reasons why such airlines choose to store their fuel in their wings and not in its usual space behind the pilot.

To put it simply (though it really is not that simple) the main reasons for airlines to do this has to do with balancing weight, counter stress and reducing wing flutter. Reducing wing flatter references an issue of balance and with “wet wings” the fuel tank is set inside the sealed aircraft wing structure and applied as a fuel tank so as to prevent the wing from leaning too back or too forward. Another reason why some airlines choose to store their fuel in wings is because it is much more cost efficient. The electrical and hydraulic components used to control the ailerons and flaps inside the wing take up just a tiny amount of space available so utilizing the wing to harbor fuel can be very efficient.

Placing the wings in the tank can also save up on costs. Large tanks require constant and consistent maintenance and mitigates the amount of payload (passengers or cargo) the aircraft can carry. With less maintenance and more payload, this design is much more cost efficient.

Weight balance and the airplanes’s center of gravity also has a lot to do with why airliners like to place their fuel in its wings. The wings are found near the aircraft’s centre of gravity so in the case that the plane is packed too heavily toward the front or back of the plane, the aircraft risks tipping over and affecting performance. Placing the fuel in the wings can potentially resolve this issue completely. Not only that, but storing the fuel at the centre of the aircraft means the center of gravity will be kept more or less constant during the flight, no matter how long it travels. If the fuel was stored at the nose or tail of the aircraft, the shift in momentum would be much larger. Any variation in the center of gravity is not recommended because it can further influence the aircraft’s stability.

Yet another (though darker) reason that airliners like to place their fuel in the wings is because it means that it will be placed further away from the passengers. If there is a fire emergency for example, the flames would be much farther away in the wings than in its usual place behind the pilots’ seat.

It’s important to understand the makeup of aircraft especially if you are working or dealing in the supply chain for aircraft parts. If you are in need of acquiring usch parts as wet wing parts, integral tank, fuel tank, ailerons, flaps, fuselage, sealants, or ather aviation parts, you can trust ASAP NSN Hub as your one stop shop and solution.


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A cylinder liner is a thin, metallic, cylinder-shaped part inserted into an engine block to form the inner wall of the cylinder. In some countries, it is known as a cylinder sleeve. Regardless of the name, it remains one of the most important functional parts of the interior of an engine. During use, cylinder liners are subject to wear and tear from the rubbing action of the piston rings and piston skirt, and must be able to withstand it. This wear is minimized by the application of a thin oil film that coats the walls of the cylinder and a layer of naturally-forming glaze that forms as the engine runs. Cylinder lines are expensive, precisely-manufactured, specialty parts, but their importance and benefits cannot be overstated.

Cylinder liners serve three primary functions: formation of a sliding surface, transfer of heat, and compression gas sealing. The cylinder liner, functioning as the inner wall of the cylinder, forms a sliding surface for the piston rings while retaining lubricant within. The use of a cylinder liner as a sliding surface provides four further benefits: high anti-galling properties, less wear on the cylinder liner itself, less wear on the partner piston ring, and less consumption of lubricant. Additionally, cylinder liners aid in the transfer of heat. Combustion heat is received by the cylinder liner via the piston and piston rings, which transmit heat to the coolant. Finally, cylinder liners offer compression gas sealing properties, preventing compressed and combustion gases from escaping the engine. To achieve this, a cylinder liner must be able to maintain its shape when exposed to high stress and high temperature in the cylinder.

There are three common types of cylinder liners: dry, wet, and finned cylinder liners. Dry cylinder liners are some of the most basic piston protectors. They must be able to withstand extremely high temperatures and protect the cylinder from impurities, so these are constructed of high-grade materials including case iron, ceramic-nickel plating, and more. Compared to wet liners, dry cylinders are much thinner. Additionally, dry cylinder liners do not interact with engine coolant but rather provide a very tight fit with the jacket in the cylinder block, thereby protecting the piston from heat and impurities.

Wet cylinder liners protect the pistons in a much different way than dry liners, but are made from the same hard material. Wet cylinder liners come in direct contact with engine coolant, hence the name ‘wet.’ In some cases, wet cylinder liners are fitted with tiny openings that help disperse heat and impurities. These types of liners are sometimes called water-jacket liners but are still considered a variant of the wet cylinder liner. If the liner is lacking a cooling jacket, one is created through the liner’s interaction with the jacket in the cylinder block.

The final type of cylinder linder, finned cylinder liners, are constructed of the same type of heat-resistant metal as the others. Finned liners are designed specifically for air-cooled engines, and their operation works much like the dry cylinder liner in that the primary cooling medium for the motor is air. These filters derive their name from the tiny fins they are fitted with which allow air to be drawn in with great force around the cylinder to provide further cooling.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of cylinder liners and cylinder block parts and deliver them with short lead times and competitive prices.For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.


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Seamless stainless steel tubing is found throughout aircraft hydraulic systems. It can be bent to shape much more easily than steel piping, withstand higher pressures, and connect more securely with proper hose fittings. Because a hose is only as good as the connection, it is critical to use high quality tubing or hose and fittings to foster a reliable seal. This is why aerospace hydraulic fittings of AS9100C and Nadcap quality are used in a wide range of industries. Components that meet these rigid requirements are used by OEMs and maintenance crews in industries such as civil aviation, aerospace and defense, industrial, as well as in construction, manufacturing, and commercial equipment. This blog will explain aerospace fittings, their types, and important considerations to make.

Unlike steel pipe, segments of steel tubing are usually attached with either flared or flareless fittings. These are the two main types of fittings. Flared fittings provide significant design and performance advantages over pipe fittings and can be used in both thin- and medium-wall tubing. In a flared fitting, the tubing is flared in preparation to install and secure the seal. It is made up of a sleeve and a nut, with the nut fitted and tightened over the sleeve. The nut draws the sleeve and flared tubing securely into a cone shaped male fitting to facilitate a seal. The sleeve also serves as a support to alleviate vibration at the flare, distributing the energy over a wider area.

As tube, hose, and fitting installations are used in critical applications such as aircraft, military equipment, heavy machinery, cranes, earth-moving equipment, and many other industrial sectors, the appropriate connection and torque are pivotal. Metal-to-metal contact between the fitting and flare is necessary to provide a reliable seal. For this reason, you should never apply pipe compound or sealing tape to the faces of the fitting or flare. It is also important to ensure the assembly is in alignment before applying the designated torque to the fittings.

The other type of fitting, flareless fittings, are used in medium- to high-pressure applications. These comprise a nut, single or double ferrule, and the fitting body. The nut and ferrules slide over a tube with an outer diameter that matches the inner diameter of the receiving fitting. As the nut is tightened to the appropriate torque, the ferrule is compressed against the tube, providing a seal. This is why flareless fittings are also known as compression fittings. One type of flareless fitting is the Military Standard (MS) flareless fitting. MS fittings are used in high pressure hydraulic systems (greater than 3,000 psi) in areas that will experience rigorous vibration of inconsistent pressure.

Additionally, O-Ring Boss (ORB) fittings are a type of fitting used for leak-tight connections. These fittings are very popular among aerospace equipment manufacturers and typically consist of a 90 durometer nitrile o-ring. There are two types of o-ring boss fittings: SAE straight-thread parts and face seal parts. Regardless of what type of fitting or fluid system components you are in need of, ASAP NSN Hub can find what you are looking for and get it to you quickly.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you source all types of fittings and aerospace standard parts and deliver them with some of the industry’s best lead times. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at +1-920-785-6790 or email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.


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Before each flight, the FAA requires the pilot in command of any aircraft to give a passenger safety briefing and inform the passengers of critical safety items and information prior to take off. Pilots of small aircraft are mandated by FAA regulation 14 CFR 91.107 to inform passengers of how to properly operate their seat belt, including how to latch and unlatch them, and the appropriate times to use the seat belt. Pilots of large or turbine-powered multi-engine aircraft must carry out a far more detailed brief in accordance with FAA 14 CFR 91.519 regulations. An easy way to remember the steps of this briefing is with the acronym SAFETY. This blog will explain each part of the SAFETY briefing and its details.

The ‘S’ is for seats, seat belts, and smoking. Per FAA regulations, an aircraft cannot take off until all passengers have been informed of how to latch and unlatch the seat belt and, when applicable, the shoulder harness. Passengers must also be briefed on when they must wear their seat belts, such as during taxi, take off, and landing. Additionally, passengers should be briefed on smoking, or lack thereof, on aircraft. Smoking, including the use of e-cigarettes, is banned on all commercial and most non-commercial flights.

The second letter of the acronym, ‘A,’ stands for air vents. An important part of the aircraft safety briefing includes instructing passengers how to operate the controls for air conditioning, outside air, and heat. Ventilation is an important aspect of passenger comfort, and will also help passengers who are dealing with airsickness. The air safety briefing should include information regarding the location of airsickness bags should passengers need them.

The ‘F’ in SAFETY stands for fire extinguisher. Awareness of the nearest fire extinguisher is critical, particularly if it is located next to a specific passenger. Passengers should not only be aware of the fire extinguisher’s location, but also understand how to operate it in case of emergency. Furthermore, passengers should be alerted of what to do in the event of a fire and how they should react. ‘E’ refers to exits, emergencies, and equipment. The location of emergency exit doors and evacuation procedures are perhaps the most important part of any safety briefing. On larger aircraft where there is more than one door, passengers should be instructed on which exit to use.

The ‘T’ stands for traffic and talking. This might come as a surprise, but passengers can be an incredibly useful tool in looking for air traffic. On smaller aircraft, their extra eyes and ears can spot things the pilot might not, so instruct them to speak up if they notice anything out of the ordinary. Additionally, passengers should know when the pilot's duties cannot be interrupted, such as during taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, and any time when the pilot is in radio contact with air traffic control. A general rule of thumb is to inform passengers that they should not distract crew members when flying below 10,000 feet.

Lastly, ‘Y’ stands for your questions. It is always a good idea to end a safety briefing with an opportunity for passengers to ask questions. This will provide passengers with the peace of mind knowing their concerns have been addressed. Ultimately, it is the pilot’s duty to ensure each passenger is safe and comfortable during flight.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of safety and survival equipment for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will respond to you in 15 minutes or less.


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The kinetic energy of a jet airplane is extremely high due to the combination of the aircraft’s weight and speed. This energy is very difficult to eliminate because a jet aircraft has low drag when the nose wheel is on the ground, and the engines continue to produce forward thrust even when the power is idle. While brakes can normally suffice, there is need for a supplementary method of slowing. This is where thrust reversers come in. A thrust reverser is a device in the engine exhaust system that essentially reverses the path of exhaust gas flow. The flow is not able to reverse 180 degrees, but rather the final path of the gases is diverted 45 degrees from straight ahead. This, coupled with the losses in the reverse flow paths, results in an engine efficiency of about 50 percent, helping the brakes bring the aircraft to a stop.

A normal jet engine will have one of two types of thrust reverser: target or cascade. A target reverser features basic clamshell doors that open from the stowed position at the engine tailpipe. These doors swivel open, blocking and redirecting the outward flow of gases. Cascade reversers are markedly more complex. These are found on turbofan engines and are designed to reverse only the fan air. When activated, cascade reverser parts such as doors in the shroud open and block the airstream’s normal path, redirecting it forward to help slow the aircraft.

On most aircraft configurations, reverse thrust is applied with the thrust lever at idle by pulling up the reverse lever to a detent, which holds the lever in position. This leaves the engine at idle RPM during the slowing process. Reverse thrust is more effective at high speed than at low speed, for two reasons. The first is that the net amount of reverse thrust increases with speed, and the second is that the reverse power is greater at high speeds because of the engine’s increased work rate. In other terms, the aircraft’s kinetic energy is being displaced at higher rates when operating at higher power.

The proper time to apply reverse thrust often depends on the type or model of aircraft. Some aircraft tend to pitch nose up when reverse thrust is applied on landing, which can cause the aircraft to temporarily leave ground again. With aircraft of this type, the pilot must ensure that the aircraft is on the ground with the nose wheel firmly down before implementing reverse thrust. Specific procedures regarding operation of thrust reversers will be included in the FAA-approved AFM of an aircraft.

Thrust reversers on jet aircraft differ greatly from those on propeller aircraft. Idle reverse thrust on a propeller produces 60 percent of the reverse thrust available at full power, making it very effective when at this setting. Jet aircraft, on the other hand, produce very little reverse thrust at idle reverse. In a jet aircraft, the pilot must use full power reverse as soon as the plane is fully grounded and landing can be completed within the available runway distance. Accidental deployment of thrust reversers while airborne is a serious emergency, so reverser systems have multiple built-in lock systems. One system prevents the reversers from operating while airborne, and another to prevent operation when the thrust levers are improperly positioned.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the thrust reverser parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. In addition to this, our inventory of over 6 billion items features wheel brake parts, turbofan engine parts, aircraft propeller parts, and important components for aircraft engine exhaust systems. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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As one moves upward in altitude, the pressure of air decreases, making it harder for humans to breathe. Mount Everest’s peak lies at 29,000 feet, and oxygen levels have been described similar to breathing through a straw while on a treadmill. Thus, at 30,000 feet where many aircraft fly, it is a technological marvel that they are able to provide oxygen pressure that allows for safe and comfortable breathing for passengers. This is due to a complex aircraft cabin pressurization system which has been designed and improved upon by countless aircraft manufacturers over the history of aviation.

While many solutions for pressurized oxygen have existed over the years, the current method of providing pressurized air for the cabin of an aircraft is by using bleed air and compressors. Within the air compressor of the engine, air from the atmosphere is directed into spinning blades which heat up and compress air before it continues through the system. While much of this air is directed to the combustion chamber for fuel ignition and propulsion generation, some of the hot, compressed air is also used for other purposes. This clean and pressurized air is referred to as “bleed air” and it may be used for cabin pressurization, deicing operations, pneumatic pumps, and aiding engine starter motors.

For cabin pressurization and many other bleed air functions, the air must first be cooled down with the use of intercoolers which shed heat to ambient air. Air continues to cool with the use of air packs within the system that act as a refrigeration unit. Air is compressed to heat it, and another intercooler filters out the heat and expels it from the aircraft. The cooled air then expands within an expansion turbine before being mixed with recirculated air to be distributed throughout the airplane fuselage. Automatic outflow valves with pressure sensors regulate the amount of pressure to maintain safe levels. These valves are also used to cycle out old air that is vented from the aircraft.

Outside of preflight checks to ensure the functionality of the automatic pressure control system, pilots do not control pressurization during the flight operation. Nevertheless, in the case of a malfunction or emergency pilots can take control of automated functions and can manually adjust the outflow valve positioning. During ground support operations in between flights, testing equipment is used to detect pressure leaks, inoperable equipment, or any other issues that warrant immediate attention for safety measures.

At an altitude of 10,000 feet, pressure of the atmosphere is viable for safe breathing conditions, and this is the altitude that planes will fly at in an emergency situation caused by depressurization of the cabin. Nevertheless, aircraft cannot permanently fly at this ideal altitude for a number of reasons. As many mountain ranges and terrain surpass elevations of 10,000 feet, it would be unsafe for aircraft to fly at such a level, and harsher weather conditions often remain at such an altitude as well. Aircraft engines are also designed for optimal operation at much higher altitudes, thus it would be very inefficient to stay at 10,000 feet.

When it comes time to begin sourcing the turbofan engine parts and aircraft components that you need for your next project or operation, ASAP NSN Hub has you covered with everything you are searching for. ASAP NSN Hub is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aerospace components that you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.


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Rivets are an important fastening component for the assembly and structure of any aircraft. Rivets are metallic cylindrical shafts featuring a head and a tail, the latter being passed through a hole between components. When the tail is inserted into the hole, it is deformed with a pneumatic rivet gun to expand its diameter, creating a head on each side of the attached components and locking the rivet in place to permanently secure them together. Rivets are manufactured to meet specific grades for aircraft, just as many other components of aircraft are as well. 5056, 2117-T, 2024-T, 2017-T, and 1100 are all rivet grades that can be used on aircraft, and aluminum rivets prove to be the most popular. Copper rivets may be utilized too, but they are often reserved for leather or copper materials. With the benefits that rivets bring, many may still wonder why rivets are used instead of other fastening methods or equipment. In this blog, we will discuss some of the alternatives to rivets, and why riveting remains the most popular.

Welding is a process that has been around for a few millennia, with true welding being a utilized manufacturing process since the 1800’s. While welding is a very efficient way of conjoining metals, it lacks some of the benefits that riveting offers, such as easy inspection and maintenance. Inspecting riveting does not require any special tools or procedures, as simple visual inspection can spot any riveting that does not properly secure components together. Most aircraft nowadays are built from aluminum, which suffers from low heat tolerance. This causes aluminum to become weaker in heat, thus risking loss of welding integrity. Because rivets provide strong binding, they prove to be much more reliable and beneficial for aircraft manufacturers over welding components together.

Screws are a popular and simple helical threaded fastener that digs into a material when tightened to secure components of aircraft together. With their thread, pullout of the screw is prevented as it grips the sides of the component or material that it is installed into. Despite this, vibrations and heavy stressors can take their toll on screws, possibly loosening them over time which can be very detrimental for an aircraft in flight. Rivets, on the other hand, cannot be loosened as they fill the hole they are installed into and have a head on each side from the pneumatic rivet gun. Rivets are also more beneficial than screws because they are often lighter in weight.

Composites, such as carbon fiber, are constantly rising in popularity for use in the body and components of an aircraft. With the new Boeing Dreamliner, about half of the composition consists of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is highly beneficial for aircraft construction, as it can be molded into many complex shapes, and has a much greater strength to weight ratio than materials such as steel. While riveting can work with composites, traditional aluminum rivets are not recommended due to aluminum weakening in carbon fiber. To avoid this, titanium rivets can be used, but still pose the problem of weakened composites through drilling.

With their many advantages over a variety of alternatives, rivets prove to be the most reliable and efficient way of securing aircraft components and structures together. At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find rivets and other components of aircraft you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.


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When working in the industrial industry, particularly in the manufacturing sector, you must handle various types of machinery and the parts that go along with it. There can be a variety of different nuts, bolts, and screws that pertain exclusively to certain parts. The hydraulic system is a perfect example of how complex the work is, as there are many different types of thread forms and sealing methods involved. Thread forms can be particularly difficult as they not immediately distinguishable from one another, thus making it difficult when doing modifications or repairs. To help ease your work, read the article below on how to use the process of elimination to identify a hydraulic hose fitting.

The first step is to determine the type of fitting. There are two types of hydraulic hose fittings: permanent and reusable. The former includes crimped hydraulic fittings and are mostly used in the fluid power industry because they are easier to attach than if you use reusable fittings. To connect a crimped fitting, you will need swaging or crimping materials. These fittings are squeezed onto the hose at assembly and are discarded when the hose assembly fails. With the latter, they are not commonly used as most people in the industry consider them much too old and more expensive. They are, however, easily identifiable because they can fit into a hose during assembly with just the use of a vise and a wrench.

After you’ve identified whether your fitting is permanent or reusable, you next need to identify the port and and connectors in the system. For example, NPT/NPTF can go with the 37° Flare and the BSPT (JIS-PT) goes with the 30° Flare (Metric). Following this, you would next identify the sealing method to determine if the hydraulic fitting is an O-ring, a mated angle or a tapered thread. From this point, you would then need to observe the fitting designs and use a seat gauge to determine seat angle.

The very last step in the process would be to measure the thread diameter of the largest point  with a caliper. Refer to a thread gauge to determine the number of threads per inch. You can ensure an accurate reading when you compare gauge and coupling threads against a lit background.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.


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If you look at the wings of an aircraft, sometimes you will see small thin wicks protruding from the outermost edge. These are called the static wicks of the aircraft, which are sometimes known as the static discharge wicks. These are a high electrical release device that have a lower corona voltage than that of the surrounding aircraft vessel. These static aircraft wicks were designed to dissipate the static electricity that builds up during each flight.

Aircraft wicks serve a very important purpose which is why it’s just as important to check them often and maintain them. But it’s also crucial that you understand more about the wicks themselves so that you can appreciate why it’s necessary to maintain them. When planes fly through snow, fog, dust, or ash, they are flying through uncharged particles. When negative charges attach to the airframe and positive charges deflect the particles build up and are eventually discharged at places along the airframe where the wicks are stationed at. Were it not for these wicks, there would be audio disturbances, potential loss of communication and weak radio transmissions.

As important as they are, static wicks can still be purchased without authorization of the FAA. There are some planes that can fly without them entirely. This is usually because the planes that do not use them tend not to fly through such uncharged particles. However it is always better to come prepared, which is why major commercial airlines will always carry and maintain static wicks. If you are interested in purchasing electronic controller parts, aviation plug connectors or other items, contact the team today.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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An aircraft wick, commonly known as static wicks or static discharge wicks, is a high electrical resistance device with a lower corona voltage than the surrounding aircraft structure. Physically, they look like long thin extensions that are located outboard trailing edges of the wings. Their purpose is to dissipate the static electricity that can accumulate during flight. Because they serve an important purpose, it’s extra crucial to take good care of the wicks.

To elaborate more on this, you have to first understand what exactly the aircraft wick is and what it does. As you fly through areas of uncharged particles, which can exist in the atmosphere as rain, snow, fog, dust or ash, positive charges deflect and negative charges attach to the airframe, building up and eventually discharging at certain points of the airframe where the static wicks are generally attached. If these wicks were not in place, there would be potential for audio disturbances, weak radio transmissions and even complete loss of communication. Other possible indications of static discharge include erratic instrument readouts, erroneous magnetic compass readings and a phenomenon called St. Elmo’s Fire, where the static discharge is visible.

The interesting thing about static wicks is that they can be purchased with or without FAA approval. Some planes can even fly without them. While they serve a very important purpose of dissipating static particles, some planes get on without them because these planes simply do not fly through such heavy amounts of particles (ie fog, snow, rain, etc.). However, like in most examples, it is always better to err on the side of caution. All commercial planes will have some form of static wick in the case that the do have a need for them in flight.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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The rudder is one of the most important control surfaces used to direct a ship, boat, submarine, aircraft, or any other vehicle that moves through air or water. The rudder is an important component in ensuring safe flight, preventing unwanted roll and yaw as well as uncontrolled banking. Mastering rudder control will make you a better pilot and give you the tools to control your aircraft through inclement conditions.

The rudder is flight control surface mounted on an aircraft’s vertical stabilizer or fin that regulates rotation along the vertical axis of an aircraft. This vertical movement is referred to as yaw, and controlling yaw is the primary purpose of the rudder. This is unlike a boat, where the rudder is used to steer the vessel.

In the majority of aircraft, the rudder is controlled by rudder pedals on the flight deck which are connected to the rudder itself. Force applied on a rudder pedal will cause a corresponding movement of the rudder in the same direction. Therefore, pressing the right rudder pedal will cause the rudder to deflect to the right. This will then cause the aircraft’s vertical axis to rotate and move the nose of the aircraft rightward. This can cause a great deal of stress on a rudder, so larger and high performance aircraft will be fitted with hydraulic actuators to help the rudder withstand these extreme conditions.

As aircraft speed increases, so too will rudder performance. At lower speeds, significant rudder input is required to yield noticeable results. Inversely, at higher speeds smaller rudder movements have significant effect. This can create problems, so many sophisticated aircraft will limit their rudder’s movement when the aircraft exceeds maneuvering speed to prevent sudden changes in direction that cause serious structural damage to the aircraft.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the rudder components for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at 1-920-785-6790 or send us an email at sales@asapnsnhub.com.


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If you have been on an aircraft flight before, you may know that passenger cabins can get very chilly or even very stuffy and hot depending on the flight. With one simple twist of the overhead fan, air conditioning (A/C) can make your ride much more of a pleasant experience. But how does this seemingly simple solution to our flight comfort actually work?

Aircraft air conditioning is supplied by air that is processed through two packs that work to regulate airflow and temperature as required. Despite there being many types of aircraft, the air conditioning system principles and operations remain the same. A/C packs are often located near the main landing gear of the plane on the left and right wings and remove excessive heat using bleed air that enters the packs from the aircraft bleed air system, supplying air to cabins at the desired temperature. The A/C system is based on an ACM (Air Cycle Machine) cooling device and is often called the “Pack”, or air conditioning package.

The aircraft pneumatic system is supplied by bleed air tap-offs on each engine compressor section and supplies the air cycle conditioning system. The bleed air is then directed from the pneumatic manifold into the primary heat exchanger of the packs. This bleed air is cycled through the primary exchanger where ram air removes some of the heat before it is compressed and enters the secondary heat exchanger to continue the cooling process. Cross flow of ram air continues to remove heat before the air moves into the ACM turbine inlet.

After leaving the secondary heat exchanger, bleed air moves through the hot side of the reheater for a first time before being cooled down using colder air from the condenser. The bleed air temperature is increased as it passes through the reheater a second time before moving into the turbine section. By increasing the temperature in the pack, the efficiency of the turbine is also increased. The ACM works to decrease the air temperature by expanding it through a turbine.

As the air leaves the turbine, it passes through the colder side of the condenser, decreasing the temperature of the air to a point below the dew point which turns the vapor into a liquid. Moving from the turbine into the water extractor, moisture is removed and goes to the water spray nozzles which sprays the water into the ram air duct. This works to cool the ram air stream, increasing the cooling efficiency by evaporation.

The passenger cabins are supplied with conditioned air from the mix manifold as the air moves through rise ducts and the side walls before exiting through the overhead distribution duct. The flight cabin is given conditioned air from the left pack and mix manifold, or the right pack if the left is not functioning. 50 percent of the cabin air is recycled for ventilation purposes by recirculation systems that use two fans to move air from the passenger compartment into the mix manifold.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the aircraft air conditioning system parts you need and more, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.


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A phototransistor is an electronic switching and current amplification component that relies on exposure to light to operate, much like how normal transistors rely on electricity to operate. When light falls on the junction of a phototransistor, reverse current flows in proportion to the luminance of the light. This makes phototransistors excellent at detecting light pulses and converting them into digital electrical signals. Unlike normal transistors, they are operated by light rather than electric current, and provides a large amount of utility for a low cost.

Phototransistors work in a similar manner to photoresistors, but can produce both current and voltage, whereas photoresistors only produce current due to the change in resistance. Phototransistors have their base terminal exposed, and instead of sending current to the base, the photons of striking light activate the transistor. This is because a phototransistor is a bipolar semiconductor with its base region exposed to illumination, which focuses the energy that passes through it. Since they are used in almost every electronic device that depends on light. Phototransistors are frequently used in security systems and punch card readers, encoders, IR photodetectors, computer logic circuitry, lighting control, and relays.

Phototransistors come in several different configurations, including common emitter, common collector, and common base, with common emitter being the most frequently used. Compared to conventional transistors, it has more base and collector areas, and is made from gallium and arsenide for high efficiency. The base is the lead responsible for activating the transistor, and is the gate controller device for the electrical supply. The collector serves as the positive lead, and the emitter is the negative lead and the outlet for the larger electrical supply.

The advantages of phototransistors is that they produce a higher current than photo diodes, are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, simple to use, and small enough to fit several of them onto a single integrated computer chip. They are also very fast and can produce nearly instantaneous output (they operate literally at the speed of light, after all), and they produce a voltage, something that photoresistors cannot do. However, because phototransistors are made from silicon, they cannot handle voltages of over 1,000 volts, are more vulnerable to surges and spikes of electricity, and do not allow electrons to move as freely as other devices do, such as electron tubes.

At ASAP NSN Hub owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the phototransistor systems and parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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Field effect transistors (FETs) are used to amplify weak signals, mostly wireless signals. This is useful for aircraft, that often operate dozens if not hundreds of miles away from the signal’s source. A field effect transistor is a type of transistor that alters the electrical behavior of a device using an electric field effect to control the electrical conductivity of a channel. FETs are classified into JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor) and MOSFET( Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Both are mainly used in integrated circuits, and are similar in operating principles, but different in composition.

JFET is the simplest type of field effect transistor in which the current can pass either from source to drain or drain to source. Unlike bipolar junction transistors, JFET uses the voltage applied to the gate terminal to control the current flowing through the channel between the drain and source terminals which results in output current being proportional to the input voltage. Featuring a reverse-biased gate terminal, JFETs are three-terminal unipolar semiconductor devices used in electronic switches, resistors, and amplifiers. JFETs are more stable than bipolar junction transistors and control the amount of current by the voltage signal. JFETs are broken down into two basic configurations

  • N-Channel JFET: the current flowing through the channel between the drain and source is negative in the form of electrons. It has lower resistance than P-Channel types.
  • P-Channel JFET- the current flowing through the channel is positive and has higher resistance than N-Channel JFETs.

MOSFET is a four-terminal semiconductor field effect transistor fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon and where the applied voltage determines the electrical conductivity of a device. In a MOSFET, the gate located between the source and drain channels is electrically insulated from the channel by a thin layer of metal oxide to control the voltage and current flow between the source and drain channels. MOSFETs are used in integrated circuits because of their high input impedance. They are mostly used in power amplifiers and switches, and in embedded system designs.

MOSFETs come in two configurations:

  • Depletion Mode MOSFET: the device is normally ON when the gate-to-source voltage is zero. The application voltage is lower than the drain-to-source voltage.
  • Enhancement Mode MOSFET- the device is normally OFF when the gate-to-source voltage is zero.

Comparing the two, JFETs are easier to manufacture and are less expensive. They are also less susceptible to damage because of their high input capacitance. MOSFETs are able to operate in high noise applications, and can operate in both depletion and enhancement mode, and have a higher input impedance.               

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the electrical transistors for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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Multiple instruments inside an aircraft’s cockpit are dependent on AC transducers. Transducers include synchros, resolvers, and linear/rotary variable differential transformers (LVDTs/RVDTs) and are used in numerous applications including navigation reference units, automatic direction finders, distance measurement equipment, and landing gear position and control. Synchros have been used in both commercial and military purposes; they are the transducer of choice when reliability is important and environment conditions are unforgiving.

Synchros and resolvers are essentially transformers in that they have primary winding and secondary winding. Just like a transformer, their primary winding is driven by an AC signal. Synchros, however, have a primary winding and three secondary windings, with each secondary winding mechanically oriented 120 degrees apart. A resolver has two primary windings and two secondary windings, spaced 90 degrees from each other. While electrically similar to transformers, they are mechanically more like motors, where the primary winding in a synchro or resolver can be rotated with respect to the secondary windings. For this reason, primary windings are also called rotors, while secondary windings are referred to as stators, due to their fixed position. In an automatic direction finder (ADF), the resolver or synchro is used to drive an indicator. As the aircraft turns the amount of coupling in the transducer changes proportionally, thus indicating for the pilot just how far their aircraft has actually turned.

Synchros are used to track the rotary output angle of a closed-loop system, which uses  feedback to achieve accuracy and repeatability. A synchro can be turned continuously, and since its secondary winding outputs are analog signals, provide infinite resolution output. As the shaft of a synchro turns, the angular position of its rotor winding changes in comparison to the secondary (stator) windings. The relative amplitude of the resulting AC output signals from the secondary windings indicates the rotary position of the synchro’s shaft.

The analog output signals that synchros generate must then be converted into digital form by a synchro-to-digital converter. Conventional analog-to-digital converters do not work well in this task, as synchros have inductive characteristics that affect such readings, synchro output signals can be distorted due to nonlinearities in the synchro and phase-shift the transducer, and synchro output signals typically contain lots of electric noise due to their working environment. Therefore, a synchro-to-digital converter must use transformer-isolated inputs and outputs.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the synchros, resolvers, and transducers systems and parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at 1-920-785-6790.


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Preheating your engine can increase longevity — especially if you’re operating in temperatures below 32?. Metals expand and contract as temperature fluctuates, and each metal does this with varying rates of expansion and contraction. Steel and aluminum have drastically different expansion properties which can affect the clearances in critical parts of the engine. In colder environments, aluminum will contract approximately twice as much as steel. In hotter climates, aluminum will expand twice as much as steel. This is the most critical reason for engine preheating - engine component clearances.

Engine parts are designed to have certain clearance between each other when operating in standard temperatures and operating ranges. Yet, when it’s too cold, these components can get tight enough to cause damage to the engine — crankshaft bearings are one of those items. They are supported by an aluminum case, while the individual crankshaft is constructed of steel. In areas of low temperature, the aluminum case contracts to the point where the bearings are too tight and have a high chance of causing damage to the engine.

You may notice quite a few benefits if you’re able to keep your engine above 60?: reduced engine stress, cylinder wear, and more efficient run-up times. In an ideal world, you’d be able to heat the entire aircraft to minimize wear/tear in everything. Often times this isn’t plausible. That’s why many pilots use installed preheaters or portable preheaters.

Aircraft usually have electronic preheating systems built in. Basic preheaters are constructed using a small electric pad that is attached to the oil slump of the engine. Other preheaters use a variety of options to heat the different areas of an engine: this includes heated intake tube bolts, heated bands, case heaters, and heated valve cover bolts. The main element to take precautions against is condensation.

Condensation is the result of warm, moist air flowing over a cold surface. Since water is a key contributor to corrosion, preheating an aircraft with just an oil slump heater for extended periods of time can result in premature camshaft and cylinder wear. This can be avoided by investing in a complete engine heating system.

Portable engine heaters are a necessity if you don’t have a preinstalled version. These systems require electricity and propane to create a strong flow of hot air into the engine compartment. The air can be blown into the bottom cowl of the exhaust opening or through the front cowl at the air inlets. At a minimum, try and get the entire engine to be above 40? to prolong your engine’s long term-health.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all your preheating parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.



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An aircraft heating system is integral for safe operation of an aircraft. In the duration of its flight cycle, an aircraft will encounter volatile temperature changes and a heating system can help ensure all aircraft components maintain their necessary temperature for efficient and reliable operation. Two heating systems that are frequently utilized in aviation are exhaust heaters and combustion heaters. The systems share one similarity— both utilize the heating of ambient air, or ram air. Let’s take a look at how these heater systems work.

Exhaust heaters are most commonly seen on smaller, single-engine aircraft. The unit is installed around part of the engine’s exhaust system and is sometimes referred to as an exhaust shroud heater. An exhaust manifold delivers warm exhaust into the metal shroud. Ram air is also brought into the shroud from outside of the aircraft. The air is warmed by the exhaust, then routed through a heater valve to the cabin. In some models, the air is routed to the carburetor as well. Exhaust is then transferred to an outlet.

This type of heater doesn’t need an independent electrical system or engine power to operate, making it efficient in a small aircraft. However, this system is hazardous in the event of failures or defects within its hardware— a small crack in the shroud or exhaust manifold has the potential to leak lethal levels of carbon monoxide into the cabin. This system requires rigorous maintenance efforts to keep it operating safely.

Combustion heaters are seen on various aircraft sizes. A combustion system operates independently from the engine, and only relies on engine fuel from the main fuel system. The system incorporates a ventilating air system, fuel system, and ignition system to heat various components of an aircraft. In order to heat incoming air from the ventilating system, the combustion unit integrates an independent combustion system within a shroud in a heater unit, where fuel and air are mixed and ignited within an inner chamber.

Air intended for combustion is provided by a blower, which pulls air from outside the aircraft and ensures the air is pressurized to the correct specifications. Ram air is collected when the aircraft is grounded, through a ventilating air fan. The ram air is circulated around the combustion chamber and outer shroud, allowing it to heat through convection. Following this process, the heated air is then directed to the cabin. Exhaust from the same process is expelled from the aircraft.

A combustion unit is extremely versatile, which is why it is used on a variety of aircraft. Most are controlled and monitored by a pilot through a cabin heat switch and thermostat and incorporate various redundant safety features. These might include an overheat switch or duct limit.

As is recommended for any other aircraft system, it is important to follow aircraft manufacturer instructions and protocols in the maintenance of exhaust or combustion heaters.  Maintenance guidelines should specify intervals between maintenance and operational checks and should be stringently adhered to in order to ensure safe operation of an aircraft heating system.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the exhaust heating system parts, spark plug parts, and aircraft heating systems parts you’re looking for, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.


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Exhaust systems are undoubtedly the bowels of any vehicle, automobile, or aircraft. The main function of the exhaust system is to allow for the smooth propulsion of gas emission from an engine out to its surrounding environment. This allows for proper gas exchange to take place in order to optimize fuel usage and energy output. In theory, this function could be performed by any metal tubing that leads from the engine to the tailpipe, however, there are many other requirements that must be considered in order for an exhaust system to function effectively. According to Federal Aviation Association (FAA) regulations, the exhaust system of an aircraft must be able to withstand high temperatures, corrosion, vibration and inertia loads, and must have means for flexibility in addition to performing its typical roles.

A structural aspect that must be put into consideration in designing an exhaust system is the maintenance of back pressure. The engine propels outward, creating a pressure that flows out. However, if there are too many bends, or if the piping of the exhaust system is too small, then the air pressure could build up in the opposite direction of the exhaust system, creating what is known as “back pressure”. The higher the back pressure, the more energy is needed for the exhaust to expel the gases outward. If the back pressure is higher that of the exhaust system, then the back pressure completely cancels out the exhaust and nothing gets expelled. To prevent this, exhaust pipes need to be wide enough and allow for optimal air flow. If pipes are too wide, not enough pressure will be built up, and the air will move too slowly.

Another consideration for a properly functioning exhaust system would be the routing of the exhaust pipes. Commercial aircraft exhaust can reach temperatures of 2000?, which can melt the cowling and other parts of the engines. The exhaust pipes must be designed in a way that is clear from areas that are unable to withstand such temperatures. The cowling around the engine may need adjustment in order to allow for adequate room for proper routing. However, it should also be noted that there will be a large difference between top temperatures of commercial planes and experimental builds.

Although not as important, you should be mindful of how much noise your aircraft creates. The sudden expulsion of air from any source can result in an audible sound, whether that be flatulence or exhaust. The engine is the lifeline of an aircraft, but the process of carrying away gas from the engine system can result in very loud sounds. This is why zero emission cars, such as any of the Tesla automobiles, create little to no sound when in use. Loud noise can be a distraction for pilots and pose as an overall safety concern. Unfortunately, the sound created from an aircraft is largely influenced by the structure of the exhaust system.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you fulfill all your engine cowling, aircraft exhaust system, or exhaust piping needs, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find everything you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asapnsnhub.com or call us at +1-920-785-6790.



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