In the realm of aviation, a stall refers to an aerodynamic condition in which lift is lost as a result of the disruption of smooth airflow over wings. As stalling is a very hazardous condition that can lead to an accident, it is important that pilots have ample training on how to recover themselves when it occurs. While understanding the basics of stall recovery is essential, it is also highly useful to be aware of the most common mistakes that pilots make during such procedures.

During a banking turn, it is possible that the lowered wing will face a stall. When this occurs, one may think it best to utilize the ailerons to maintain orientation. While this may be an optimal method during standard flight, increasing the angle-of-attack (AOA) on each wingtip with the ailerons during a stall can potentially cause aileron deflection to surpass the critical AOA. When this occurs, the entire wing will stall as the aircraft begins to roll in the direction of the higher AOA.

Back pressure is another concern during stall recovery, that of which should be gradually added to the elevator during a steep level flight turn. If a significant amount of back pressure is added to the elevator, a secondary stall may occur due to an excessive angle-of-attack. If this happens during a recovery, the nose should be lowered while power is gradually added before attempting the stall recovery again.

In general, the primary method of recovering from a stall is to reduce the angle-of-attack of all affected flight surfaces, though it is important that decreases in altitude are controlled and minimal. Typically, one will want to slowly release back-pressure while increasing energy, and once the aircraft is ready, a climb may be attempted again. During such procedures, a pilot should not lose hundreds or thousands of feet of altitude, and pointing the nose straight down to decrease the aircraft’s AOA is unsafe.

While conducting any recovery, the heading of the aircraft should be governed with the use of rudder pedal controls from within the cockpit. During the recovery, asymmetric thrust will often cause the aircraft to begin turning left, and the pilot can utilize the right rudder pedal to counteract such forces to maintain alignment. It is also important to keep the nose straight forward during the recovery process as well. Alongside management of the rudder pedal, pilots should also ensure that the throttle is used to apply full power in a smooth fashion.

The last major mistake that pilots make during a stall is how they fly the aircraft before, during, and after recovery. Whenever a stall occurs, it is paramount that the pilot maintains coordinated flight. With the use of rudder pedals, ailerons, and other flight control surfaces, pilots should correct undesirable forces, turns, and more. If a pilot remains uncoordinated throughout a stall, they have a chance of entering a spin which is highly dangerous.

With proper stall recovery training and a reliable aircraft, pilots can keep themselves safe during flight operations. ASAP NSN Hub is a website owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we are a leading distributor of aircraft parts, NSN components, electronics, and much more. With over 2 billion items ready for purchase, take the time to explore our catalogs as you see fit. With our online RFQ service, customers can rapidly request quotes for their comparisons with ease, and responses are always provided within 15 minutes of receiving a completed form. Kickstart the purchasing process today and see how ASAP NSN Hub can fulfill all your part requirements with time and cost savings for your benefit.

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Altitude is the vertical distance above a specific reference point. While you may be familiar with the term, you may not know that there are five types of altitude. There are many factors that determine altitude including the vertical distance above mean sea level and above the ground surface, as well as pressure and density. In this blog, we will be providing an overview of five different types of altitude, thus giving you a better understanding of their distinguishing features and importance.

Beginning with indicated altitude, this type can be read directly off the altimeter within an aircraft. The altimeter is either mounted on an aircraft’s instrumental panel or can be worn on a person’s wrist. If situated on the instrumental panel, it is typically enclosed in a case that is affixed to the exterior of the aircraft by an air pressure inlet at the back-end of the housing. Alternatively, you can also derive altitude data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides altitude as a part of the area’s location by receiving signals from different satellites.

Similarly, pressure altitude information is derived from an altimeter that has been set to 29.92” (inHg). This setting can be described as standard pressure altitude wherein the aircraft is above the standard datum plane. The latter is the theoretical location in which at 15 degrees Celsius, the altimeter setting will equal 29.92 inches of mercury. Pressure altitude serves a particularly important role as it is the basis for determining aircraft performance as well as for aircraft flying above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL). As such, all aircraft flying at similar flight levels will have the same altimeter setting.

Density altitude is pressure altitude that has been adjusted for non-standard temperatures. It is especially important for calculating aircraft performance data. Density altitude is the altitude the aircraft will be performing at regardless of its actual altitude. With increased temperatures, your airplane does not perform as well. For example, your takeoff distance may be longer, you may experience vapor lock, and you may not climb as fast. The hot temperatures will cause your density to increase, thus your aircraft will feel like it is flying at a higher altitude.

Next, true altitude is defined as the vertical distance of your aircraft above sea level. The units used to express this altitude is Mean Sea Level (MSL). Aeronautical charts often use MSL for airspace altitudes, terrain figures, airways, and more. It is important not to confuse true altitude with the height of the aircraft above ground level as these are different.

Lastly, absolute altitude is the aircraft’s height above the ground below. As absolute altitude is constantly changing, hills, valleys, and mountainous terrain can transform the absolute altitude accordingly. Typically expressed in feet above ground level (AGL), a radar altimeter, or radio altimeter, measures altitude above the terrain that is presently beneath an aircraft by determining the time it takes a beam of radio waves to reflect from the ground and bounce back to the aircraft. It is important to note that radar altimeters can provide readings up to 2,500 feet AGL.

If you find yourself in need of altimeter components, aircraft cylinders, or other various parts, rely on ASAP NSN Hub for all your operational needs. With an ever-expanding inventory of over 2 billion new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find parts at your fingertips, you are bound to find the products you need with ease. More than that, our optimized digital interface consists of a helpful search engine and filters as well as an RFQ service that simplifies the procurement process. By filling out and submitting an RFQ form, you will receive a competitive quote for your comparisons in just 15 minutes or less. Thank you for choosing ASAP NSN Hub as your go-to sourcing solution.

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Upon takeoff, aircraft can make a number of noises that can disturb unknowing residents in the area around an airport. Engine noise can be sourced from the fan, compressor, or the air discharge from the core of the engine; however, the noise generated by the engine exhaust is the loudest. While not all the noise produced by aircraft can be mitigated, aerospace engineers have crafted a solution: noise suppressors. Noise suppressors are commonly an integral, airborne part of the aircraft engine installation or engine exhaust nozzle.

The noise produced by the engine exhaust is the result of a high degree of turbulence caused by a high-velocity jet stream traveling through a relatively quiet atmosphere. Just behind the engine, the high velocity of the jet stream produces a high frequency noise. The resulting noise is caused by the turbulent mixing of the exhaust gases with the atmosphere.

Over time and distance, the velocity of the jet stream slows down, it combines with the atmosphere, and violent turbulence begins. The noise generated as the exhaust gases dissipate is at a much lower frequency. The lower the frequency of the noise, the greater distance it is able to travel, making it so that individuals on the ground can hear the noise in greater volume. In contrast, high frequency noise is weakened more rapidly due to the interference of buildings, terrain, and other various atmospheric disturbances.

An engine with low airflow but high thrust due to high exhaust gas temperature, pressure, and/or afterburning produces a high velocity gas stream resulting in high noise levels. In the case of a larger engine, such powerplant types can handle more air and are quieter at the same thrust. The noise can be reduced by operating the engine at a lower power setting. Additionally, large engines that operate at partial thrust are less noisy than smaller engines operating at full thrust. In the case of a turbojet, the turbofan engine is much quieter during takeoff. Fan-type engines are able to produce noises at a lower volume because the exhaust gases ejected at the engine tailpipe have a slower velocity as compared to those of a turbojet.

Fan engines need a larger turbine to provide power to drive the fan. A larger turbine is able to reduce the velocity of the gas as well as reduce the noise generated because the exhaust gas noise and velocity are proportional. The exhaust from the fan is expelled at a low velocity so it does not create a noise problem.

Now that we have covered the way noise is produced in different engine types, it is important to get familiar with noise suppressors. The most common types are either a corrugated-perimeter type or multi-tube type. Both of these noise suppressors are able to break up the main jet exhaust stream into smaller jet streams. In doing so, the perimeter of the jet nozzle area is increased and the size of the air stream eddies are reduced as the gases are released into the atmosphere. Though the total noise-energy stays the same, the frequency is raised and the size of the air stream eddies and exhaust stream are scaled down. This is able to successfully bring the noise to the level beyond the audible range of the human ear, and these audible frequencies can be absorbed by the atmosphere more successfully than lower frequencies.

Additionally, the engine nacelle has acoustic linings surrounding the engine. This noise-absorbing lining is able to convert the acoustic energy into heat. The linings consist of a permeable skin supported by a honeycomb backing which provides a little room between the fact sheet and the engine duct. For optimal noise suppression, the acoustic properties of the skin and the liner can be matched.

If you are in search of aircraft engine parts such as compressors, magnetos, combustion chambers, noise suppressors, and more, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. ASAP NSN Hub is a premiere aircraft parts distributor with an ever-expanding inventory of over 2 billion new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find parts. We set ourselves apart from other aerospace and aircraft part distributors in the fact that our supply chain network stretches across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, ensuring expedited shipping times for both our domestic and international customers. Peruse our expansive online catalog, fill out our RFQ form, and find out why customers steadily rely on ASAP NSN Hub time and time again.

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Industrial springs are common hardware components that are often overlooked, typically being mounted within an assembly of moving parts. Crucial to motion control and industrial equipment, industrial springs may be found in door closing systems, the mechanical seals of rotary unions, and much more. While there are numerous types of industrial springs that one may use, the most common variations that serve industrial applications include compression, extension, and torsion springs.

Compression springs are a type that are capable of resisting axial compressive forces, serving as the most efficient type in regard to energy storage. As force is exerted on the spring, the component will begin to compress and build up energy. Once the spring is able to return to its standard position, the built-up energy is released against the load, pushing it back. A common type of compression spring is the wave spring that of which features a flat wire with waves at each turn. With their availability to provide high force while having a lower working height, such devices serve vibration isolators and bearing retention applications.

Extension springs differ from compression springs, serving to resist the tensile forces that pull them apart. Through the use of coiling, initial tension is provided. This ensures that the spring exhibits pulling forces when extended for the means of returning to a resting state. With loops or hooks situated at each end of the spring, components can be attached and held together through the force of the spring. While compression springs feature zero load while at zero deflection, extension springs have a load at zero deflection as a result of their initial tension. For their industrial applications, extension springs may commonly be found on medical devices and automated equipment door mechanisms.

Torsion springs are a more specialized type as compared to the compression and extension spring, featuring resistance to twisting forces rather than compression or axial tension. For their construction, such springs are helically wound, featuring arms on each end that rotate around the component’s central axis. The arms are always attached to various components, allowing for a load to be exerted on the spring itself. When an application requires a high amount of torque for proper functionality, two torsion springs may be paired with a space between the two. These assemblies are known as double torsion springs. While torsion springs are very common, one typical use is to be used as a clothespin.

In the realm of aviation, industrial springs find many uses on an aircraft. Within the landing gear, compression springs are found within poppet returns, slat servos, and slat controls. Meanwhile, extension springs facilitate the operation of boom latches, automatic patch levers, and other various systems. With the use of a torsion spring, tall cone levers, passenger door entrances, and other parts can operate with ease. As a result, having various industrial springs on hand can ensure the continued operation of countless aircraft systems and components, proving their use and importance.

ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we are your sourcing solution for high quality parts and components that have been sourced from thousands of top global manufacturers that we trust. Take the time to explore our offerings as you see fit, and our team is always on standby to assist you through the purchasing process as necessary. Due to our dedication to quality control and export compliance, we proudly operate with AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B certification and accreditation. Get started with us today and see why customers choose to steadily rely on ASAP NSN Hub for all their operational needs.

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When observing commercial aircraft as they conduct operations, one may notice that there are a variety of small surfaces that are commonly implemented on the ends of wings. These surfaces at the end of wingtips are known as winglets or Sharklets depending on the manufacturer of the aircraft, and they serve to reduce drag for the means of achieving more optimal flight. To better understand the role that winglets and Sharklets serve, as well as their difference, we will provide a brief overview of each.

In order for an aircraft to achieve and maintain flight, they rely on their wings and their effect on aerodynamics. As an aircraft moves forward in the air, the shape of their wings will cause a pressure difference to form above and below the structure. As the air pressure below the wing is greater than that above it, lift will be produced, resulting in the aircraft being pushed upwards in the air. While this method of operation is crucial for standard flight, the design of wing structures makes it so that spiraling vortices are created as the two varying pressure zones come into contact with each other.

Vortices are detrimental for a variety of reasons, primarily being a major source of drag which causes aircraft to slow down. With reduced speed, an increased amount of fuel must be burned to maintain standard speeds, making flight operations less cost-effective and less environmentally friendly. When conducting research into how the negative effects of vortices may be combated, engineers found that modifying wingtips could allow for the size of vortices to be mitigated.

During the 1973 Middle-Eastern oil crisis, NASA partnered with manufacturing companies such as Boeing to experiment with aircraft design to find a way in which aircraft fuel could be used more efficiently, and studying birds of prey paved the way for testing wingtips that curved backwards. Upon further testing, such structural designs proved to increase lift while reducing drag, and the 1988 Boeing 747-400 was the first to feature winglets. Soon after, Gulfstream followed with their blended winglet, and the technology quickly spread as an industry standard.

In 2002, the European Union initiated the Aircraft Wing with Advanced Technology Operation (AWIATOR) program which sought further ways in which drag and aircraft fuel consumption could be reduced. After some years of experimentation, Airbus released their own variation of winglets in 2011, those of which they called Sharklets. When comparing the two different structures to one another, little difference may be found outside of cosmetic appearance. As such, both devices provide the exact same benefit of reducing the detrimental effects of wing pressure differences and minimizing the amount of vortices that result from standard flight operations.

As winglets and Sharklets both can reduce the amount of fuel that is consumed for a standard flight, having such designs for your aircraft is crucial for the sake of saving money and fuel. ASAP NSN Hub is a website owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we are a premier distributor of new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find items that cater towards a variety of applications and industries. Take your time in exploring our vast offerings and catalogs, and our team of industry experts is always readily on standby 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as necessary.

As an AS9120B, ISO 9001:2015, and FAA AC 00-56B certified and accredited enterprise, we ensure that all parts are of the utmost quality prior to shipment. We are also the only independent distributor with a NO CHINA SOURCING pledge, meaning that every item ships with its qualifying certifications and manufacturing trace documentation. Get started on the purchasing process today with a competitive quote for your comparisons when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website. 

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While not an equipment piece that serves for the ability of flight directly, landing gear is one of the most crucial aspects of an aircraft that enables safe operations. Coming in a variety of forms and designs, the common goal of landing gear is to provide a means for an aircraft to takeoff and land on various surfaces, as well as traverse on the ground. Taildragger and tricycle landing gear are two of the most common types of configurations, each of which feature different assemblies that may be beneficial to certain aircraft models and needs. To help you understand the differences between each landing gear type, we will provide a brief overview of the taildragger and tricycle landing gear of aircraft.

Taildragger landing gear, also known as conventional landing gear, is a configuration in which two primary wheels are situated near the front of the fuselage while a single wheel is placed toward the back. The rear wheel is a smaller wheel, meaning that the aircraft’s rear will lean backward as the weight of the vehicle rests on the secondary wheel. The name “taildragger” came from the way in which such aircraft tend to takeoff and land, having an appearance of dragging their tail across the runway. Taildragger landing gear has long served aircraft since the early day of aviation, originally coming in the form of steerable tailskids.

Such landing gear has a number of advantages that can be very beneficial, such as how the center of gravity places a small load on the back wheel, allowing it to be built smaller for less parasitic drag. Distribution of weight and landing configurations also allow for slower airframe damage, and they may be easier to operate with skis or traverse in and out of hangars. Despite these advantages, such landing gear often cause more “nose-over” accidents which can be hazardous for the pilot. Additionally, the orientation of the aircraft while on the ground can decrease forward visibility, and present harder taxi maneuvers during high wind conditions.

The tricycle landing gear configuration is a type of undercarriage in which the wheels are situated in a tricycle arrangement. Somewhat opposite to the taildragger undercarriage type, tricycle gear features a single nose wheel in the front, while two or more main wheels are located aft of the center of gravity. Due to their orientation, tricycle landing gear often offers the pilot a more optimal forward view and are less at risk of facing a “nose over” accident. Tricycle landing gear is also known for providing the easiest takeoff, landing, and taxiing procedures, making it very common for many aircraft models.

Their ease of landing comes from the assembly of their wheels, allowing them to meet a required attitude for landing on the main gear as is required in the flare. They are also less affected by crosswinds, and reduce the possibility of a ground loop. Despite these various advantages, tricycle landing gear is known for being susceptible to wheel-barrowing, that of which is when lift is powerful enough to reduce the weight on the wheels while being too little to fully take the aircraft off of the ground. This can result in a loss of directional stability, possibly being an operational hazard.

With the varying differences between the two landing gear configurations, the decision may come down to the personal choice of a pilot and what they are most familiar with. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, offering competitive pricing and rapid lead-times on over 2 billion high-quality parts that cater to a diverse set of industries and applications. Take the time to fully explore our expansive catalogs as you see fit, and our experts are ready to assist you through the purchasing process to fulfill all your operational requirements with ease.

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Aviation headsets are a common equipment piece for aircraft, permitting pilots and crew members to conduct radio and intra-cabin communication. Additionally, headsets are also crucial for hearing protection and maintaining clear communication as they block ambient noises and reduce sound levels for the comfort and ease of the user. As an essential element of many flight operations, it is important to properly maintain and clean aviation headsets so that they can continue to function properly for a long period of time.

Aviation headsets can be an expensive investment, often ranging upwards of $1,000 or more depending on the features, brand, and capabilities they offer. As a well cared for headset can provide its user with a service life upwards of ten or so years, such equipment is worth protecting. While most headsets are easy to use and may only need to be plugged into an interface for their basic functionality, there are common protection practices and maintenance procedures that should be followed by pilots to maintain the health of all equipment.

Whenever one is finishing a flight and removes their headset, one of the most simplistic ways in which they can be properly protected is to be stored correctly. Headsets should never be left out in the sun unattended as heat and light can easily damage certain materials and sensitive electronics. Additionally, the sunlight may heat up certain surfaces enough to burn one’s skin if not careful. As such, the headset should be stored out of the path of sunlight, even if one is simply stopping for a short amount of time. Furthermore, headsets should be stored in such a way that they are guarded against moisture and extreme temperatures as well.

For the long term storage of headsets, pilots should utilize either a case or a protective flight bag so that equipment can be transported safely. It is paramount that headsets are not haphazardly thrown into storage with other items as the microphone, earphones, or other equipment pieces may become damaged or broken. To prevent such occurrences, the best storage options are those that allow the pilot to secure the headset with padding and straps.

As headsets are equipment pieces that face constant use, various materials can break down or wear out over time. Ear seals, fabric inserts, the head pad, and microphone are all pieces that commonly face the most wear, thus they may be replaced regularly for proper maintenance. Beyond being beneficial for the service life of the headset itself, replacing wearable parts can also make such equipment more comfortable to wear and may even improve performance in some regards. Depending on how frequently one flies, the interval of replacements can range from every six months to every year and a half, though flaking materials are always a sign that it may be time for replacement. Luckily, replacing most parts of a headset is very quick, often only taking a handful of minutes for each part.

The cables and connectors of aviation headsets are paramount for their functionality, requiring ample protection. Cables have the chance of becoming damaged and frayed over time if treated incorrectly, thus pilots always need to handle such components with care. It is important that cables are never pulled out of interfaces with force, and cabling should be neatly organized and stored to avoid twisting, wrapping, and strain. If cables are long and a more proper solution is needed, certain clips, boxes, and mounting tools may be employed within the cockpit to remove any strain on cabling.

Through the proper maintenance and care of aviation headsets, such equipment can provide many years of reliable operations for the benefit of flight communication. If you are in need of various headset components for replacement, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform for aircraft components, and we utilize our market expertise and purchasing power to save our customers time and money when procuring all they need for their operations. Get started with a personalized quote on items you are interested in today when you fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website.

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Electrical circuits and devices are complex systems, and their intricate and numerous components can make troubleshooting somewhat difficult. While one could test the overall functionality of a component through more manual means, tools such as ammeters are much more beneficial for troubleshooting a circuit with their ability to gather various readings. Ammeters are capable of measuring the amount of current present within a circuit, and they garner current readings in the form of amperes. As there are various types of ammeters available as well as similar devices such as galvanometers, it is important to understand the role of such instruments and how they differ from others.

Unlike measurements of voltage and resistance, measuring current requires the meter to become a part of the circuit itself. Digital and analog ammeter instruments are the most common type, and both utilize a separate or included jack in order to attach the test lead plug to the circuit. While ammeters are primarily designed for measuring current, many can still provide readings for voltage and resistance as well. As many models may differ from one another, it is best to refer to manufacturer specifications or the owner’s manual for how measurements may be conducted.

When an ammeter is connected to the circuit through its leads, current will pass through the device and a measurement is made. If there are no issues with the circuit, no voltage should be dropped during the process. The readings of digital and analog ammeters are slightly different, and many say that analog ammeters are more difficult to read. Despite this, the continuous movement of the needle across the indicator dial allows for a more thorough and precise measurement in regard to current changes. It is important to enact caution when conducting measurements with any ammeter, as a surge in current can damage the instrument and its components. As such, a meter may have a fuse or specific device settings to protect itself.

Ammeters are often compared to other measurement devices such as galvanometers, but the two should not be confused with one another. While the ammeter is used for measuring current, voltage, and resistance, the galvanometer is a mechanical device that indicates the magnitude and direction of current. Galvanometers are also not used for measuring alternating current, and they require a magnetic field in order to achieve their readings. As such, both devices are fairly similar in their ability to measure electronic circuit properties, though their different roles and characteristics set the two devices apart.

In the case that an ammeter needs to measure a system that exhibits an unsafe current level, the ammeter may be placed in parallel with a shunt resistor. A shunt resistor often comes in the form of a high precision manganin resistor that has a low resistance value. With this setup, the current is reduced by the shunt resistor before entering the ammeter, and a reading is obtained. As the voltage resistance is already known before conducting a measurement, the read value can be scaled back to the original amperage while ensuring the safety of the measurement device.

When you are in need of measurement devices for troubleshooting electrical circuits, ASAP NSN Hub is your sourcing solution with top quality instruments and parts. ASAP NSN Hub is a premier purchasing platform, offering customers access to countless aviation parts, board level components, NSN parts, and more. We guarantee the quality of our inventory, only selling warrantied and traceable products that have been sourced from leading manufacturers. Additionally, we conduct thorough quality assurance testing and inspection prior to shipment. When you are ready to begin the purchasing process, fill out and submit an Instant RFQ form as provided on our website and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less with a competitive quote. 

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During a normal travel year, airliners may constantly be operating as they land and takeoff around the world to transport passengers. Due to the sheer number of operations taking place each day, aircraft require quick turnovers upon landing so that they can continue on to their next destination with rapid succession. Despite the process of landing to take off being very rapid, there are numerous crucial procedures that are carried out to ensure an aircraft is properly situated for another flight. In this blog, we will discuss the steps taken upon landing an aircraft to the moment that it lifts off once again, allowing you to best understand how the turnover process is conducted.

Upon touching down on a runway, the first step that is carried out is to have the pilots communicate with ground controllers to safely taxi across the runway. Runways can be very busy areas with numerous hazards, thus it is crucial that proper direction is given for efficient management. With the assistance of a ramp team leader, pilots will be directed to their assigned gate and can then line themselves up correctly. Depending on the airport and its configuration, a pilot may be guided with the use of a lead-in lighting system or may follow instructions provided by the ramp lead. Once the nose wheel has been positioned correctly in the space, the plane can park itself.

As the jet engine or APU may use a great amount of power that is more beneficial for flight, a ground power system or generator will typically be connected to the aircraft to provide electricity while personnel prepare for passenger disembarking. Once the engines have been shut down and power has been established through external means, air conditioning is also provided externally to ensure passenger comfort. Depending on the size of the aircraft, one or two connections may be needed to sufficiently cool or heat the cabin.

In order to allow passengers to safely leave the aircraft, the gate may be attached to the cabin door or a truck or car with mounted stairs will position itself next to the fuselage. While most airliners will need either a gate or mounted stairs to leave the cabin, some smaller regional jets may be close enough to the ground and have built-in staircases for entering and exiting. While passengers are leaving, the ramp team will have already begun removing luggage and cargo into a baggage cart so that it can be transported to the baggage room and then the carousel. As jumbo jets can often carry large amounts of baggage that needs to quickly be removed, cargo pods serve as a solution that only requires one worker for operations while bags are placed.

In order to prepare for the next flight, catering trucks and a crew will restock the galley carts with more food and drinks, and they will often have lifts or other equipment to easily get materials inside the aircraft. Meanwhile, the cabin seats and toilets are cleaned, restocked with supplies, and checked so that everything is prepped and ready to go for the next set of passengers. As the last major procedure for preparing the aircraft, the fuel needed for the next operation is calculated and then the tanks are replenished as needed with the use of a tanker truck.

Once all preparations have been completed, the next round of passengers can board the aircraft and find their seats. Once pre-flight preparations are finalized, the cabin door is sealed and tugs or tractors will begin moving the aircraft away from the gate. From that point, the aircraft will work with air traffic control to begin the takeoff procedure and liftoff. Once the aircraft is safely in the air, crew members and pilots can return to their normal operations until the next destination is reached and the cycle begins again.

At ASAP NSN Hub, we serve as a premier supplier of aviation parts and components that have been sourced from top global manufacturers that we trust. Utilizing our purchasing power and market expertise, we can leverage competitive prices and rapid lead-times to save you money and time. If you find particular items that you are interested in, you may request a quote at any time through our RFQ services and a dedicated account manager will reach out to you to continue the process within 15 minutes of receiving your completed form. Get started today and see why customers choose to rely on ASAP NSN Hub for their operational needs. 

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An underwater locator beacon (ULB), also known as an underwater locating device or underwater acoustic beacon, is a device affixed to aviation flight recorders such as the cockpit voice recorder, flight data recorder, and aircraft fuselage. The device activates by being immersed in water, at which point it is designed to emit an ultrasonic pulse of 37.5 kHz every second for a minimum of 30 days. ULBs attached to the airframe are called low frequency ULBs and transmit the pulse at 8.8 kHz. These devices are not only designed to survive accidents, but to remain fully functioning after impact. Research from 2011 determined that ULBs had a 90% survival rate over nearly thirty above-sea air accidents.

As of January 1, 2020, new European aviation safety regulations on air operations dictate that the transmission time of the ULBs attached to the flight recorders must be extended from 30 to 90 days. The same ruling dictates that large aircraft flying routes more than 180 nautical miles from a shore must be equipped with an additional low frequency ULB on the airframe. Low-frequency ULBs must comply with ETSO-C200 regulations or equivalent, and cannot be installed in the wings or empennage.

Low frequency ULBs have a very long detection range allowing them to provide effective assistance in reducing the time and cost of locating wreckage. They transmit an 8.8 kHz acoustic signal (ping) for at least 90 days and the low frequency provides an increased detection of 7-12 nautical miles, four times greater than the standard ULBs installed on flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders. The maximum operational depth of a low frequency ULB is 20,000 feet and they can be activated by immersion in both salt and freshwater. The battery is a lithium single cell type with a service life of at least six years. The ULB assembly itself comprises the ULB DK180 Beacon, a mounting kit, and an adapter plate.

An aircraft maintenance program is needed to guarantee that procedures for testing the ULB, which is conducted concurrently with battery replacement, provide functional testing of the ULB before replacing the old battery to ensure that the device is still functioning properly. The maintenance program should consist of standard periodic maintenance, such as regular checking of the device operation as it pertains to manufacturer requirements, life limits on the battery of the ULB, and the cleaning of the switch contacts. When installing the ULB on the flight recorder, it is critical to make sure that the switch contacts are arranged such that they are not likely to contribute to the build-up of debris that could cause the contacts to inadvertently short. To do this, the contacts should be vertical or downward-facing.

The ULB is a crucial device in emergency situations. As such, it is best practice to ensure you are getting yours from a trusted source. For underwater locator beacons and much more, look no further than ASAP NSN Hub. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, electronics, industrial, and IT hardware markets. Our account managers are always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790. Let us show you why we consider ourselves the future of purchasing.

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