Seamless stainless steel tubing is found throughout aircraft hydraulic systems. It can be bent to shape much more easily than steel piping, withstand higher pressures, and connect more securely with proper hose fittings. Because a hose is only as good as the connection, it is critical to use high quality tubing or hose and fittings to foster a reliable seal. This is why aerospace hydraulic fittings of AS9100C and Nadcap quality are used in a wide range of industries. Components that meet these rigid requirements are used by OEMs and maintenance crews in industries such as civil aviation, aerospace and defense, industrial, as well as in construction, manufacturing, and commercial equipment. This blog will explain aerospace fittings, their types, and important considerations to make.

Unlike steel pipe, segments of steel tubing are usually attached with either flared or flareless fittings. These are the two main types of fittings. Flared fittings provide significant design and performance advantages over pipe fittings and can be used in both thin- and medium-wall tubing. In a flared fitting, the tubing is flared in preparation to install and secure the seal. It is made up of a sleeve and a nut, with the nut fitted and tightened over the sleeve. The nut draws the sleeve and flared tubing securely into a cone shaped male fitting to facilitate a seal. The sleeve also serves as a support to alleviate vibration at the flare, distributing the energy over a wider area.

As tube, hose, and fitting installations are used in critical applications such as aircraft, military equipment, heavy machinery, cranes, earth-moving equipment, and many other industrial sectors, the appropriate connection and torque are pivotal. Metal-to-metal contact between the fitting and flare is necessary to provide a reliable seal. For this reason, you should never apply pipe compound or sealing tape to the faces of the fitting or flare. It is also important to ensure the assembly is in alignment before applying the designated torque to the fittings.

The other type of fitting, flareless fittings, are used in medium- to high-pressure applications. These comprise a nut, single or double ferrule, and the fitting body. The nut and ferrules slide over a tube with an outer diameter that matches the inner diameter of the receiving fitting. As the nut is tightened to the appropriate torque, the ferrule is compressed against the tube, providing a seal. This is why flareless fittings are also known as compression fittings. One type of flareless fitting is the Military Standard (MS) flareless fitting. MS fittings are used in high pressure hydraulic systems (greater than 3,000 psi) in areas that will experience rigorous vibration of inconsistent pressure.

Additionally, O-Ring Boss (ORB) fittings are a type of fitting used for leak-tight connections. These fittings are very popular among aerospace equipment manufacturers and typically consist of a 90 durometer nitrile o-ring. There are two types of o-ring boss fittings: SAE straight-thread parts and face seal parts. Regardless of what type of fitting or fluid system components you are in need of, ASAP NSN Hub can find what you are looking for and get it to you quickly.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you source all types of fittings and aerospace standard parts and deliver them with some of the industry’s best lead times. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at +1-920-785-6790 or email us at Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.

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Before each flight, the FAA requires the pilot in command of any aircraft to give a passenger safety briefing and inform the passengers of critical safety items and information prior to take off. Pilots of small aircraft are mandated by FAA regulation 14 CFR 91.107 to inform passengers of how to properly operate their seat belt, including how to latch and unlatch them, and the appropriate times to use the seat belt. Pilots of large or turbine-powered multi-engine aircraft must carry out a far more detailed brief in accordance with FAA 14 CFR 91.519 regulations. An easy way to remember the steps of this briefing is with the acronym SAFETY. This blog will explain each part of the SAFETY briefing and its details.

The ‘S’ is for seats, seat belts, and smoking. Per FAA regulations, an aircraft cannot take off until all passengers have been informed of how to latch and unlatch the seat belt and, when applicable, the shoulder harness. Passengers must also be briefed on when they must wear their seat belts, such as during taxi, take off, and landing. Additionally, passengers should be briefed on smoking, or lack thereof, on aircraft. Smoking, including the use of e-cigarettes, is banned on all commercial and most non-commercial flights.

The second letter of the acronym, ‘A,’ stands for air vents. An important part of the aircraft safety briefing includes instructing passengers how to operate the controls for air conditioning, outside air, and heat. Ventilation is an important aspect of passenger comfort, and will also help passengers who are dealing with airsickness. The air safety briefing should include information regarding the location of airsickness bags should passengers need them.

The ‘F’ in SAFETY stands for fire extinguisher. Awareness of the nearest fire extinguisher is critical, particularly if it is located next to a specific passenger. Passengers should not only be aware of the fire extinguisher’s location, but also understand how to operate it in case of emergency. Furthermore, passengers should be alerted of what to do in the event of a fire and how they should react. ‘E’ refers to exits, emergencies, and equipment. The location of emergency exit doors and evacuation procedures are perhaps the most important part of any safety briefing. On larger aircraft where there is more than one door, passengers should be instructed on which exit to use.

The ‘T’ stands for traffic and talking. This might come as a surprise, but passengers can be an incredibly useful tool in looking for air traffic. On smaller aircraft, their extra eyes and ears can spot things the pilot might not, so instruct them to speak up if they notice anything out of the ordinary. Additionally, passengers should know when the pilot's duties cannot be interrupted, such as during taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, and any time when the pilot is in radio contact with air traffic control. A general rule of thumb is to inform passengers that they should not distract crew members when flying below 10,000 feet.

Lastly, ‘Y’ stands for your questions. It is always a good idea to end a safety briefing with an opportunity for passengers to ask questions. This will provide passengers with the peace of mind knowing their concerns have been addressed. Ultimately, it is the pilot’s duty to ensure each passenger is safe and comfortable during flight.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of safety and survival equipment for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will respond to you in 15 minutes or less.

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The kinetic energy of a jet airplane is extremely high due to the combination of the aircraft’s weight and speed. This energy is very difficult to eliminate because a jet aircraft has low drag when the nose wheel is on the ground, and the engines continue to produce forward thrust even when the power is idle. While brakes can normally suffice, there is need for a supplementary method of slowing. This is where thrust reversers come in. A thrust reverser is a device in the engine exhaust system that essentially reverses the path of exhaust gas flow. The flow is not able to reverse 180 degrees, but rather the final path of the gases is diverted 45 degrees from straight ahead. This, coupled with the losses in the reverse flow paths, results in an engine efficiency of about 50 percent, helping the brakes bring the aircraft to a stop.

A normal jet engine will have one of two types of thrust reverser: target or cascade. A target reverser features basic clamshell doors that open from the stowed position at the engine tailpipe. These doors swivel open, blocking and redirecting the outward flow of gases. Cascade reversers are markedly more complex. These are found on turbofan engines and are designed to reverse only the fan air. When activated, cascade reverser parts such as doors in the shroud open and block the airstream’s normal path, redirecting it forward to help slow the aircraft.

On most aircraft configurations, reverse thrust is applied with the thrust lever at idle by pulling up the reverse lever to a detent, which holds the lever in position. This leaves the engine at idle RPM during the slowing process. Reverse thrust is more effective at high speed than at low speed, for two reasons. The first is that the net amount of reverse thrust increases with speed, and the second is that the reverse power is greater at high speeds because of the engine’s increased work rate. In other terms, the aircraft’s kinetic energy is being displaced at higher rates when operating at higher power.

The proper time to apply reverse thrust often depends on the type or model of aircraft. Some aircraft tend to pitch nose up when reverse thrust is applied on landing, which can cause the aircraft to temporarily leave ground again. With aircraft of this type, the pilot must ensure that the aircraft is on the ground with the nose wheel firmly down before implementing reverse thrust. Specific procedures regarding operation of thrust reversers will be included in the FAA-approved AFM of an aircraft.

Thrust reversers on jet aircraft differ greatly from those on propeller aircraft. Idle reverse thrust on a propeller produces 60 percent of the reverse thrust available at full power, making it very effective when at this setting. Jet aircraft, on the other hand, produce very little reverse thrust at idle reverse. In a jet aircraft, the pilot must use full power reverse as soon as the plane is fully grounded and landing can be completed within the available runway distance. Accidental deployment of thrust reversers while airborne is a serious emergency, so reverser systems have multiple built-in lock systems. One system prevents the reversers from operating while airborne, and another to prevent operation when the thrust levers are improperly positioned.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the thrust reverser parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. In addition to this, our inventory of over 6 billion items features wheel brake parts, turbofan engine parts, aircraft propeller parts, and important components for aircraft engine exhaust systems. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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As one moves upward in altitude, the pressure of air decreases, making it harder for humans to breathe. Mount Everest’s peak lies at 29,000 feet, and oxygen levels have been described similar to breathing through a straw while on a treadmill. Thus, at 30,000 feet where many aircraft fly, it is a technological marvel that they are able to provide oxygen pressure that allows for safe and comfortable breathing for passengers. This is due to a complex aircraft cabin pressurization system which has been designed and improved upon by countless aircraft manufacturers over the history of aviation.

While many solutions for pressurized oxygen have existed over the years, the current method of providing pressurized air for the cabin of an aircraft is by using bleed air and compressors. Within the air compressor of the engine, air from the atmosphere is directed into spinning blades which heat up and compress air before it continues through the system. While much of this air is directed to the combustion chamber for fuel ignition and propulsion generation, some of the hot, compressed air is also used for other purposes. This clean and pressurized air is referred to as “bleed air” and it may be used for cabin pressurization, deicing operations, pneumatic pumps, and aiding engine starter motors.

For cabin pressurization and many other bleed air functions, the air must first be cooled down with the use of intercoolers which shed heat to ambient air. Air continues to cool with the use of air packs within the system that act as a refrigeration unit. Air is compressed to heat it, and another intercooler filters out the heat and expels it from the aircraft. The cooled air then expands within an expansion turbine before being mixed with recirculated air to be distributed throughout the airplane fuselage. Automatic outflow valves with pressure sensors regulate the amount of pressure to maintain safe levels. These valves are also used to cycle out old air that is vented from the aircraft.

Outside of preflight checks to ensure the functionality of the automatic pressure control system, pilots do not control pressurization during the flight operation. Nevertheless, in the case of a malfunction or emergency pilots can take control of automated functions and can manually adjust the outflow valve positioning. During ground support operations in between flights, testing equipment is used to detect pressure leaks, inoperable equipment, or any other issues that warrant immediate attention for safety measures.

At an altitude of 10,000 feet, pressure of the atmosphere is viable for safe breathing conditions, and this is the altitude that planes will fly at in an emergency situation caused by depressurization of the cabin. Nevertheless, aircraft cannot permanently fly at this ideal altitude for a number of reasons. As many mountain ranges and terrain surpass elevations of 10,000 feet, it would be unsafe for aircraft to fly at such a level, and harsher weather conditions often remain at such an altitude as well. Aircraft engines are also designed for optimal operation at much higher altitudes, thus it would be very inefficient to stay at 10,000 feet.

When it comes time to begin sourcing the turbofan engine parts and aircraft components that you need for your next project or operation, ASAP NSN Hub has you covered with everything you are searching for. ASAP NSN Hub is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aerospace components that you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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Rivets are an important fastening component for the assembly and structure of any aircraft. Rivets are metallic cylindrical shafts featuring a head and a tail, the latter being passed through a hole between components. When the tail is inserted into the hole, it is deformed with a pneumatic rivet gun to expand its diameter, creating a head on each side of the attached components and locking the rivet in place to permanently secure them together. Rivets are manufactured to meet specific grades for aircraft, just as many other components of aircraft are as well. 5056, 2117-T, 2024-T, 2017-T, and 1100 are all rivet grades that can be used on aircraft, and aluminum rivets prove to be the most popular. Copper rivets may be utilized too, but they are often reserved for leather or copper materials. With the benefits that rivets bring, many may still wonder why rivets are used instead of other fastening methods or equipment. In this blog, we will discuss some of the alternatives to rivets, and why riveting remains the most popular.

Welding is a process that has been around for a few millennia, with true welding being a utilized manufacturing process since the 1800’s. While welding is a very efficient way of conjoining metals, it lacks some of the benefits that riveting offers, such as easy inspection and maintenance. Inspecting riveting does not require any special tools or procedures, as simple visual inspection can spot any riveting that does not properly secure components together. Most aircraft nowadays are built from aluminum, which suffers from low heat tolerance. This causes aluminum to become weaker in heat, thus risking loss of welding integrity. Because rivets provide strong binding, they prove to be much more reliable and beneficial for aircraft manufacturers over welding components together.

Screws are a popular and simple helical threaded fastener that digs into a material when tightened to secure components of aircraft together. With their thread, pullout of the screw is prevented as it grips the sides of the component or material that it is installed into. Despite this, vibrations and heavy stressors can take their toll on screws, possibly loosening them over time which can be very detrimental for an aircraft in flight. Rivets, on the other hand, cannot be loosened as they fill the hole they are installed into and have a head on each side from the pneumatic rivet gun. Rivets are also more beneficial than screws because they are often lighter in weight.

Composites, such as carbon fiber, are constantly rising in popularity for use in the body and components of an aircraft. With the new Boeing Dreamliner, about half of the composition consists of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is highly beneficial for aircraft construction, as it can be molded into many complex shapes, and has a much greater strength to weight ratio than materials such as steel. While riveting can work with composites, traditional aluminum rivets are not recommended due to aluminum weakening in carbon fiber. To avoid this, titanium rivets can be used, but still pose the problem of weakened composites through drilling.

With their many advantages over a variety of alternatives, rivets prove to be the most reliable and efficient way of securing aircraft components and structures together. At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find rivets and other components of aircraft you need, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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When working in the industrial industry, particularly in the manufacturing sector, you must handle various types of machinery and the parts that go along with it. There can be a variety of different nuts, bolts, and screws that pertain exclusively to certain parts. The hydraulic system is a perfect example of how complex the work is, as there are many different types of thread forms and sealing methods involved. Thread forms can be particularly difficult as they not immediately distinguishable from one another, thus making it difficult when doing modifications or repairs. To help ease your work, read the article below on how to use the process of elimination to identify a hydraulic hose fitting.

The first step is to determine the type of fitting. There are two types of hydraulic hose fittings: permanent and reusable. The former includes crimped hydraulic fittings and are mostly used in the fluid power industry because they are easier to attach than if you use reusable fittings. To connect a crimped fitting, you will need swaging or crimping materials. These fittings are squeezed onto the hose at assembly and are discarded when the hose assembly fails. With the latter, they are not commonly used as most people in the industry consider them much too old and more expensive. They are, however, easily identifiable because they can fit into a hose during assembly with just the use of a vise and a wrench.

After you’ve identified whether your fitting is permanent or reusable, you next need to identify the port and and connectors in the system. For example, NPT/NPTF can go with the 37° Flare and the BSPT (JIS-PT) goes with the 30° Flare (Metric). Following this, you would next identify the sealing method to determine if the hydraulic fitting is an O-ring, a mated angle or a tapered thread. From this point, you would then need to observe the fitting designs and use a seat gauge to determine seat angle.

The very last step in the process would be to measure the thread diameter of the largest point  with a caliper. Refer to a thread gauge to determine the number of threads per inch. You can ensure an accurate reading when you compare gauge and coupling threads against a lit background.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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If you look at the wings of an aircraft, sometimes you will see small thin wicks protruding from the outermost edge. These are called the static wicks of the aircraft, which are sometimes known as the static discharge wicks. These are a high electrical release device that have a lower corona voltage than that of the surrounding aircraft vessel. These static aircraft wicks were designed to dissipate the static electricity that builds up during each flight.

Aircraft wicks serve a very important purpose which is why it’s just as important to check them often and maintain them. But it’s also crucial that you understand more about the wicks themselves so that you can appreciate why it’s necessary to maintain them. When planes fly through snow, fog, dust, or ash, they are flying through uncharged particles. When negative charges attach to the airframe and positive charges deflect the particles build up and are eventually discharged at places along the airframe where the wicks are stationed at. Were it not for these wicks, there would be audio disturbances, potential loss of communication and weak radio transmissions.

As important as they are, static wicks can still be purchased without authorization of the FAA. There are some planes that can fly without them entirely. This is usually because the planes that do not use them tend not to fly through such uncharged particles. However it is always better to come prepared, which is why major commercial airlines will always carry and maintain static wicks. If you are interested in purchasing electronic controller parts, aviation plug connectors or other items, contact the team today.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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An aircraft wick, commonly known as static wicks or static discharge wicks, is a high electrical resistance device with a lower corona voltage than the surrounding aircraft structure. Physically, they look like long thin extensions that are located outboard trailing edges of the wings. Their purpose is to dissipate the static electricity that can accumulate during flight. Because they serve an important purpose, it’s extra crucial to take good care of the wicks.

To elaborate more on this, you have to first understand what exactly the aircraft wick is and what it does. As you fly through areas of uncharged particles, which can exist in the atmosphere as rain, snow, fog, dust or ash, positive charges deflect and negative charges attach to the airframe, building up and eventually discharging at certain points of the airframe where the static wicks are generally attached. If these wicks were not in place, there would be potential for audio disturbances, weak radio transmissions and even complete loss of communication. Other possible indications of static discharge include erratic instrument readouts, erroneous magnetic compass readings and a phenomenon called St. Elmo’s Fire, where the static discharge is visible.

The interesting thing about static wicks is that they can be purchased with or without FAA approval. Some planes can even fly without them. While they serve a very important purpose of dissipating static particles, some planes get on without them because these planes simply do not fly through such heavy amounts of particles (ie fog, snow, rain, etc.). However, like in most examples, it is always better to err on the side of caution. All commercial planes will have some form of static wick in the case that the do have a need for them in flight.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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The rudder is one of the most important control surfaces used to direct a ship, boat, submarine, aircraft, or any other vehicle that moves through air or water. The rudder is an important component in ensuring safe flight, preventing unwanted roll and yaw as well as uncontrolled banking. Mastering rudder control will make you a better pilot and give you the tools to control your aircraft through inclement conditions.

The rudder is flight control surface mounted on an aircraft’s vertical stabilizer or fin that regulates rotation along the vertical axis of an aircraft. This vertical movement is referred to as yaw, and controlling yaw is the primary purpose of the rudder. This is unlike a boat, where the rudder is used to steer the vessel.

In the majority of aircraft, the rudder is controlled by rudder pedals on the flight deck which are connected to the rudder itself. Force applied on a rudder pedal will cause a corresponding movement of the rudder in the same direction. Therefore, pressing the right rudder pedal will cause the rudder to deflect to the right. This will then cause the aircraft’s vertical axis to rotate and move the nose of the aircraft rightward. This can cause a great deal of stress on a rudder, so larger and high performance aircraft will be fitted with hydraulic actuators to help the rudder withstand these extreme conditions.

As aircraft speed increases, so too will rudder performance. At lower speeds, significant rudder input is required to yield noticeable results. Inversely, at higher speeds smaller rudder movements have significant effect. This can create problems, so many sophisticated aircraft will limit their rudder’s movement when the aircraft exceeds maneuvering speed to prevent sudden changes in direction that cause serious structural damage to the aircraft.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the rudder components for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at 1-920-785-6790 or send us an email at

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If you have been on an aircraft flight before, you may know that passenger cabins can get very chilly or even very stuffy and hot depending on the flight. With one simple twist of the overhead fan, air conditioning (A/C) can make your ride much more of a pleasant experience. But how does this seemingly simple solution to our flight comfort actually work?

Aircraft air conditioning is supplied by air that is processed through two packs that work to regulate airflow and temperature as required. Despite there being many types of aircraft, the air conditioning system principles and operations remain the same. A/C packs are often located near the main landing gear of the plane on the left and right wings and remove excessive heat using bleed air that enters the packs from the aircraft bleed air system, supplying air to cabins at the desired temperature. The A/C system is based on an ACM (Air Cycle Machine) cooling device and is often called the “Pack”, or air conditioning package.

The aircraft pneumatic system is supplied by bleed air tap-offs on each engine compressor section and supplies the air cycle conditioning system. The bleed air is then directed from the pneumatic manifold into the primary heat exchanger of the packs. This bleed air is cycled through the primary exchanger where ram air removes some of the heat before it is compressed and enters the secondary heat exchanger to continue the cooling process. Cross flow of ram air continues to remove heat before the air moves into the ACM turbine inlet.

After leaving the secondary heat exchanger, bleed air moves through the hot side of the reheater for a first time before being cooled down using colder air from the condenser. The bleed air temperature is increased as it passes through the reheater a second time before moving into the turbine section. By increasing the temperature in the pack, the efficiency of the turbine is also increased. The ACM works to decrease the air temperature by expanding it through a turbine.

As the air leaves the turbine, it passes through the colder side of the condenser, decreasing the temperature of the air to a point below the dew point which turns the vapor into a liquid. Moving from the turbine into the water extractor, moisture is removed and goes to the water spray nozzles which sprays the water into the ram air duct. This works to cool the ram air stream, increasing the cooling efficiency by evaporation.

The passenger cabins are supplied with conditioned air from the mix manifold as the air moves through rise ducts and the side walls before exiting through the overhead distribution duct. The flight cabin is given conditioned air from the left pack and mix manifold, or the right pack if the left is not functioning. 50 percent of the cabin air is recycled for ventilation purposes by recirculation systems that use two fans to move air from the passenger compartment into the mix manifold.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the aircraft air conditioning system parts you need and more, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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A phototransistor is an electronic switching and current amplification component that relies on exposure to light to operate, much like how normal transistors rely on electricity to operate. When light falls on the junction of a phototransistor, reverse current flows in proportion to the luminance of the light. This makes phototransistors excellent at detecting light pulses and converting them into digital electrical signals. Unlike normal transistors, they are operated by light rather than electric current, and provides a large amount of utility for a low cost.

Phototransistors work in a similar manner to photoresistors, but can produce both current and voltage, whereas photoresistors only produce current due to the change in resistance. Phototransistors have their base terminal exposed, and instead of sending current to the base, the photons of striking light activate the transistor. This is because a phototransistor is a bipolar semiconductor with its base region exposed to illumination, which focuses the energy that passes through it. Since they are used in almost every electronic device that depends on light. Phototransistors are frequently used in security systems and punch card readers, encoders, IR photodetectors, computer logic circuitry, lighting control, and relays.

Phototransistors come in several different configurations, including common emitter, common collector, and common base, with common emitter being the most frequently used. Compared to conventional transistors, it has more base and collector areas, and is made from gallium and arsenide for high efficiency. The base is the lead responsible for activating the transistor, and is the gate controller device for the electrical supply. The collector serves as the positive lead, and the emitter is the negative lead and the outlet for the larger electrical supply.

The advantages of phototransistors is that they produce a higher current than photo diodes, are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, simple to use, and small enough to fit several of them onto a single integrated computer chip. They are also very fast and can produce nearly instantaneous output (they operate literally at the speed of light, after all), and they produce a voltage, something that photoresistors cannot do. However, because phototransistors are made from silicon, they cannot handle voltages of over 1,000 volts, are more vulnerable to surges and spikes of electricity, and do not allow electrons to move as freely as other devices do, such as electron tubes.

At ASAP NSN Hub owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the phototransistor systems and parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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Field effect transistors (FETs) are used to amplify weak signals, mostly wireless signals. This is useful for aircraft, that often operate dozens if not hundreds of miles away from the signal’s source. A field effect transistor is a type of transistor that alters the electrical behavior of a device using an electric field effect to control the electrical conductivity of a channel. FETs are classified into JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor) and MOSFET( Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Both are mainly used in integrated circuits, and are similar in operating principles, but different in composition.

JFET is the simplest type of field effect transistor in which the current can pass either from source to drain or drain to source. Unlike bipolar junction transistors, JFET uses the voltage applied to the gate terminal to control the current flowing through the channel between the drain and source terminals which results in output current being proportional to the input voltage. Featuring a reverse-biased gate terminal, JFETs are three-terminal unipolar semiconductor devices used in electronic switches, resistors, and amplifiers. JFETs are more stable than bipolar junction transistors and control the amount of current by the voltage signal. JFETs are broken down into two basic configurations

  • N-Channel JFET: the current flowing through the channel between the drain and source is negative in the form of electrons. It has lower resistance than P-Channel types.
  • P-Channel JFET- the current flowing through the channel is positive and has higher resistance than N-Channel JFETs.

MOSFET is a four-terminal semiconductor field effect transistor fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon and where the applied voltage determines the electrical conductivity of a device. In a MOSFET, the gate located between the source and drain channels is electrically insulated from the channel by a thin layer of metal oxide to control the voltage and current flow between the source and drain channels. MOSFETs are used in integrated circuits because of their high input impedance. They are mostly used in power amplifiers and switches, and in embedded system designs.

MOSFETs come in two configurations:

  • Depletion Mode MOSFET: the device is normally ON when the gate-to-source voltage is zero. The application voltage is lower than the drain-to-source voltage.
  • Enhancement Mode MOSFET- the device is normally OFF when the gate-to-source voltage is zero.

Comparing the two, JFETs are easier to manufacture and are less expensive. They are also less susceptible to damage because of their high input capacitance. MOSFETs are able to operate in high noise applications, and can operate in both depletion and enhancement mode, and have a higher input impedance.               

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the electrical transistors for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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Multiple instruments inside an aircraft’s cockpit are dependent on AC transducers. Transducers include synchros, resolvers, and linear/rotary variable differential transformers (LVDTs/RVDTs) and are used in numerous applications including navigation reference units, automatic direction finders, distance measurement equipment, and landing gear position and control. Synchros have been used in both commercial and military purposes; they are the transducer of choice when reliability is important and environment conditions are unforgiving.

Synchros and resolvers are essentially transformers in that they have primary winding and secondary winding. Just like a transformer, their primary winding is driven by an AC signal. Synchros, however, have a primary winding and three secondary windings, with each secondary winding mechanically oriented 120 degrees apart. A resolver has two primary windings and two secondary windings, spaced 90 degrees from each other. While electrically similar to transformers, they are mechanically more like motors, where the primary winding in a synchro or resolver can be rotated with respect to the secondary windings. For this reason, primary windings are also called rotors, while secondary windings are referred to as stators, due to their fixed position. In an automatic direction finder (ADF), the resolver or synchro is used to drive an indicator. As the aircraft turns the amount of coupling in the transducer changes proportionally, thus indicating for the pilot just how far their aircraft has actually turned.

Synchros are used to track the rotary output angle of a closed-loop system, which uses  feedback to achieve accuracy and repeatability. A synchro can be turned continuously, and since its secondary winding outputs are analog signals, provide infinite resolution output. As the shaft of a synchro turns, the angular position of its rotor winding changes in comparison to the secondary (stator) windings. The relative amplitude of the resulting AC output signals from the secondary windings indicates the rotary position of the synchro’s shaft.

The analog output signals that synchros generate must then be converted into digital form by a synchro-to-digital converter. Conventional analog-to-digital converters do not work well in this task, as synchros have inductive characteristics that affect such readings, synchro output signals can be distorted due to nonlinearities in the synchro and phase-shift the transducer, and synchro output signals typically contain lots of electric noise due to their working environment. Therefore, a synchro-to-digital converter must use transformer-isolated inputs and outputs.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the synchros, resolvers, and transducers systems and parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at 1-920-785-6790.

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Preheating your engine can increase longevity — especially if you’re operating in temperatures below 32?. Metals expand and contract as temperature fluctuates, and each metal does this with varying rates of expansion and contraction. Steel and aluminum have drastically different expansion properties which can affect the clearances in critical parts of the engine. In colder environments, aluminum will contract approximately twice as much as steel. In hotter climates, aluminum will expand twice as much as steel. This is the most critical reason for engine preheating - engine component clearances.

Engine parts are designed to have certain clearance between each other when operating in standard temperatures and operating ranges. Yet, when it’s too cold, these components can get tight enough to cause damage to the engine — crankshaft bearings are one of those items. They are supported by an aluminum case, while the individual crankshaft is constructed of steel. In areas of low temperature, the aluminum case contracts to the point where the bearings are too tight and have a high chance of causing damage to the engine.

You may notice quite a few benefits if you’re able to keep your engine above 60?: reduced engine stress, cylinder wear, and more efficient run-up times. In an ideal world, you’d be able to heat the entire aircraft to minimize wear/tear in everything. Often times this isn’t plausible. That’s why many pilots use installed preheaters or portable preheaters.

Aircraft usually have electronic preheating systems built in. Basic preheaters are constructed using a small electric pad that is attached to the oil slump of the engine. Other preheaters use a variety of options to heat the different areas of an engine: this includes heated intake tube bolts, heated bands, case heaters, and heated valve cover bolts. The main element to take precautions against is condensation.

Condensation is the result of warm, moist air flowing over a cold surface. Since water is a key contributor to corrosion, preheating an aircraft with just an oil slump heater for extended periods of time can result in premature camshaft and cylinder wear. This can be avoided by investing in a complete engine heating system.

Portable engine heaters are a necessity if you don’t have a preinstalled version. These systems require electricity and propane to create a strong flow of hot air into the engine compartment. The air can be blown into the bottom cowl of the exhaust opening or through the front cowl at the air inlets. At a minimum, try and get the entire engine to be above 40? to prolong your engine’s long term-health.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all your preheating parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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An aircraft heating system is integral for safe operation of an aircraft. In the duration of its flight cycle, an aircraft will encounter volatile temperature changes and a heating system can help ensure all aircraft components maintain their necessary temperature for efficient and reliable operation. Two heating systems that are frequently utilized in aviation are exhaust heaters and combustion heaters. The systems share one similarity— both utilize the heating of ambient air, or ram air. Let’s take a look at how these heater systems work.

Exhaust heaters are most commonly seen on smaller, single-engine aircraft. The unit is installed around part of the engine’s exhaust system and is sometimes referred to as an exhaust shroud heater. An exhaust manifold delivers warm exhaust into the metal shroud. Ram air is also brought into the shroud from outside of the aircraft. The air is warmed by the exhaust, then routed through a heater valve to the cabin. In some models, the air is routed to the carburetor as well. Exhaust is then transferred to an outlet.

This type of heater doesn’t need an independent electrical system or engine power to operate, making it efficient in a small aircraft. However, this system is hazardous in the event of failures or defects within its hardware— a small crack in the shroud or exhaust manifold has the potential to leak lethal levels of carbon monoxide into the cabin. This system requires rigorous maintenance efforts to keep it operating safely.

Combustion heaters are seen on various aircraft sizes. A combustion system operates independently from the engine, and only relies on engine fuel from the main fuel system. The system incorporates a ventilating air system, fuel system, and ignition system to heat various components of an aircraft. In order to heat incoming air from the ventilating system, the combustion unit integrates an independent combustion system within a shroud in a heater unit, where fuel and air are mixed and ignited within an inner chamber.

Air intended for combustion is provided by a blower, which pulls air from outside the aircraft and ensures the air is pressurized to the correct specifications. Ram air is collected when the aircraft is grounded, through a ventilating air fan. The ram air is circulated around the combustion chamber and outer shroud, allowing it to heat through convection. Following this process, the heated air is then directed to the cabin. Exhaust from the same process is expelled from the aircraft.

A combustion unit is extremely versatile, which is why it is used on a variety of aircraft. Most are controlled and monitored by a pilot through a cabin heat switch and thermostat and incorporate various redundant safety features. These might include an overheat switch or duct limit.

As is recommended for any other aircraft system, it is important to follow aircraft manufacturer instructions and protocols in the maintenance of exhaust or combustion heaters.  Maintenance guidelines should specify intervals between maintenance and operational checks and should be stringently adhered to in order to ensure safe operation of an aircraft heating system.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the exhaust heating system parts, spark plug parts, and aircraft heating systems parts you’re looking for, new or obsolete. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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Exhaust systems are undoubtedly the bowels of any vehicle, automobile, or aircraft. The main function of the exhaust system is to allow for the smooth propulsion of gas emission from an engine out to its surrounding environment. This allows for proper gas exchange to take place in order to optimize fuel usage and energy output. In theory, this function could be performed by any metal tubing that leads from the engine to the tailpipe, however, there are many other requirements that must be considered in order for an exhaust system to function effectively. According to Federal Aviation Association (FAA) regulations, the exhaust system of an aircraft must be able to withstand high temperatures, corrosion, vibration and inertia loads, and must have means for flexibility in addition to performing its typical roles.

A structural aspect that must be put into consideration in designing an exhaust system is the maintenance of back pressure. The engine propels outward, creating a pressure that flows out. However, if there are too many bends, or if the piping of the exhaust system is too small, then the air pressure could build up in the opposite direction of the exhaust system, creating what is known as “back pressure”. The higher the back pressure, the more energy is needed for the exhaust to expel the gases outward. If the back pressure is higher that of the exhaust system, then the back pressure completely cancels out the exhaust and nothing gets expelled. To prevent this, exhaust pipes need to be wide enough and allow for optimal air flow. If pipes are too wide, not enough pressure will be built up, and the air will move too slowly.

Another consideration for a properly functioning exhaust system would be the routing of the exhaust pipes. Commercial aircraft exhaust can reach temperatures of 2000?, which can melt the cowling and other parts of the engines. The exhaust pipes must be designed in a way that is clear from areas that are unable to withstand such temperatures. The cowling around the engine may need adjustment in order to allow for adequate room for proper routing. However, it should also be noted that there will be a large difference between top temperatures of commercial planes and experimental builds.

Although not as important, you should be mindful of how much noise your aircraft creates. The sudden expulsion of air from any source can result in an audible sound, whether that be flatulence or exhaust. The engine is the lifeline of an aircraft, but the process of carrying away gas from the engine system can result in very loud sounds. This is why zero emission cars, such as any of the Tesla automobiles, create little to no sound when in use. Loud noise can be a distraction for pilots and pose as an overall safety concern. Unfortunately, the sound created from an aircraft is largely influenced by the structure of the exhaust system.

At ASAP NSN Hub, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you fulfill all your engine cowling, aircraft exhaust system, or exhaust piping needs, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find everything you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at or call us at +1-920-785-6790.

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